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Cells. Molecular Biology Techniques. Which type of cell has a nucleus?. Prokaryotic Eukaryotic. Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic Cells. Prokaryotic - Cells lacking a nucleus. Eukrayotic - Cells containing a nucleus. Organelles - Membrane-bound bodies found within eukaryotic cells.

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Molecular Biology Techniques

eukaryotic versus prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic Cells
  • Prokaryotic - Cells lacking a nucleus.
  • Eukrayotic - Cells containing a nucleus.
    • Organelles - Membrane-bound bodies found within eukaryotic cells.
cell structure
Cell Structure
  • Cell wall: Rigid boundaries of the cell
    • Cellulose: organic compound that makes up the majority of plant cell walls
      • Cotton is 90% cellulose
    • Hemicellulose: Gluelike substance that holds cellulose fibers together within the wall
    • Pectin: Organic matter that provides stiffness
cell structure1
Cell Structure
  • Cell (Plasma) Membrane: Binds all the living components within the protoplasm
  • Cytoplasm: All cellular components between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
What is the name of the jelly like substance where many chemical reactions take place and cell organelles are embedded?
  • Cytoplasm
  • Chloroplast
  • Nucleus
  • Cellulose
  • Nucleus: Control center of the cell, houses DNA, DNA provides information needed to fulfill the cells’ needs (growth, differentiation, etc) & stores heredity information
    • Nuclear Envelope: Structurally complex pores, proteins that act as channels for molecules are within the pores, acts as gatekeeper between nucleus and rest of cell
    • Chromatin: Composed of proteins and DNA, when nucleus divides for mitosis, chromatin coils.
    • Chromosomes: Condensed condition of chromatin. Each plant/animal cell has its own fixed number of chromosomes, radish has 18, humans have 46.
what controls reproduction and contains the genetic info of the cell
What controls reproduction and contains the genetic info of the cell?
  • Cell wall
  • Nucleus
  • Nuclear envelope
  • Plastids
endoplasmic reticulum er
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum facilitates cellular communication and materials channeling.
    • Connected to outer membrane of nucleus
    • Rough ER distributes ribosomes
    • Smooth ER associated with lipid secretion
  • Ribosomes are composed of two subunits composed of RNA and proteins.
    • involved in linking amino acids for the construction of large protein molecules
golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus
  • are often bound by branching tubules that originate from the ER.
    • Involved in the modification of carbohydrates attached to proteins synthesized and packaged in the ER.
  • Plastids: associated with the storage or manufacturing of carbohydrates
    • Chloroplasts: Location of photosynthesis, contain stacks of grana
      • Grana/Granum: contain thylakoids
      • Thylakoids: contain chlorophyll
      • Chlorophyll: give green pigment
  • Chromoplasts
    • Found in colored plant organs, like fruits & petals.
    • Some chloroplasts evolve into chromoplasts (like ripening tomatoes).
  • Leucoplasts
    • No pigment, assumed to be in roots.
    • May become specialized for bulk storage of starch, lipid or protein.
what is the location of photosynthesis in the cell
What is the location of photosynthesis in the cell?
  • Plastids
  • Chloroplast
  • Chromoplasts
  • Leucoplasts
what gives plants their green pigment
What gives plants their green pigment?
  • Grana
  • Thylakoids
  • Dictyosomes
  • Chlorophyll
  • Mitochondria release energy produced from cellular respiration.
    • Powerhouse of the cell


Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport Chain


  • Used for storage in plants
    • In mature cells, 90% of volume may be taken up by central vacuoles bounded by vacuolar membranes.
    • Filled with cell sap which helps maintain pressure within the cell.
    • Also frequently contains water-soluble pigments, like anthocynaninwhich provide color for flowers.
  • Cytoskeleton is an intricate network of microtubules and microfilaments.
    • Microtubules control the addition of cellulose to the cell wall.
  • Cytoplasm Jelly like substance where chemical reactions take place and other parts are embedded.
  • Nucleus Controls reproduction and also contains the characteristics of the cell.
  • Cell membrane Surrounds the cell and controls what moves in and out of the cell.
  • Mitochondria Found only in plant cells where respiration occurs.
  • Chloroplasts These makes plants green. They contain chlorophyll which is needed for photosynthesis.
what gives cells their shape
What gives cells their shape?
  • Cell wall
  • Cell membrane
  • Sap
  • Vacuoles
  • Cell wall Gives the cell its shape. The cell's "skeleton".
  • Vacuole Where the cell sap is stored, controls pressure
  • Golgi Apparatus Involved in the modification of carbohydrates attached to proteins synthesized
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Facilitates cellular communication and materials channeling, distributes ribosomes
  • RibosomesInvolved in protein synthesis
cellular reproduction
Cellular Reproduction
  • Cell division process referred to as cell cycle.
    • Divided into interphase and mitosis.
  • Interphase
    • Period when cells are not dividing.
      • G1 - Cell increases in size.
      • S - DNA replication takes place.
      • G2- Mitochondria divide, and microtubules produced.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3_PNiLWBjY
  • Mitosis refers to the process of cellular division that produces two daughter cells with equal amounts of DNA and other substances duplicated during interphase.
    • Each daughter cell is an exact copy of the parent cell.
      • Mitosis occurs in meristems.
  • Chromosomes condense.
    • Strands of chromatin coil and tighten with centromeres holding each pair of chromatids together.
  • Nuclear envelope fragments.
  • Chromosomes align at the cell’s equator.
    • Spindle fibers collectively referred to as the spindle.
    • At the end of metaphase, the centromeres holding each sister chromosomes separate lengthwise.
  • Sister chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite poles.
    • Spindle fibers gradually shorten as material is continuously removed from the polar ends.
  • Each group of daughter chromosomes become surrounded by a nuclear envelope.
  • Daughter chromosomes become indistinguishable.
  • Nucleoli reappear
  • Spindle fibers disintegrate
  • Cell plate forms.
mitosis in action
Mitosis in Action
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VlN7K1-9QB0&feature=related
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?annotation_id=annotation_706798&v=VGV3fv-uZYI&feature=iv