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Late Victorianism & Early 20 th Century: The Push for Civil Rights. Danika Rockett University of Baltimore Summer 2010. Today’s Readings. Kate Chopin – The Awakening excerpt Virginia Woolf – A Room of One’s Own excerpt

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late victorianism early 20 th century the push for civil rights

Late Victorianism & Early 20th Century: The Push for Civil Rights

Danika Rockett

University of Baltimore

Summer 2010

today s readings
Today’s Readings

Kate Chopin – The Awakening excerpt

Virginia Woolf – A Room of One’s Own excerpt

Alice Duer Miller – “Our Idea of Nothing at All,” “Home and Where It Is”

Chris Willis – “’Heaven Defend Me from Political or highly-educated women!’: Packaging the New Woman for Mass Consumption”

kate chopin the awakening 1899
Kate ChopinThe Awakening (1899)
  • Louisiana Creole background
  • Forerunner of 20th century feminist writing
  • The Awakening focuses on the confines of domestic life for women
  • Desiree’s Baby looks at racism in the South
  • She wrote as a way of coping with depression after her husband died
virginia woolf a room of one s own 1929
Virginia WoolfA Room of One’s Own (1929)
  • An essay based on a series of lectures
  • “A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction.”
  • Judith (“Shakespeare’s sister”)
    • Uneducated
    • Trapped at home
    • Forced into marriage via beating and humiliation
  • Criticized by Alice Walker for “excluding women of color.”
alice duer miller our idea of nothing at all home and where it is
Alice Duer Miller“Our Idea of Nothing at All” & “Home and Where It Is”
  • Are Women People? (1915)
  • Come Out of the Kitchen (1916)
  • Women Are People! (1917)
  • Famous suffragist
  • Wrote satirical poems
  • Her writing had a significant effect on American public opinion
the new woman
The New Woman

There was a New Woman, as I’ve heard tell,

And she rode a bike with a horrible bell,

She rode a bike in a masculine way,

And she had a spill on the Queen’s Highway

the new woman7
The New Woman

As “New Woman” she is known

‘Tis her enemies have baptised her

But she gladly claims the name;

Hers it is to make a glory,

What was meant should be a shame

the new woman in fiction
The New Woman in Fiction*
  • 1883 – 1900: More than 100 New Woman novels
  • New Women were stereotyped
    • Unnattractive
    • Asexual
    • Girton Girls and Bluestockings
    • Avid Bicyclists

*See today’s reading by Chris Willis

the new woman in fact
The New Woman in Fact
  • “Descendants” of Mary Wollstonecraft
  • 1851 – 1901: Women in the workforce increased from 2.8 million to 4.7 million
    • teachers, nurses, clerks, Post Office*
  • 1867: National Society for Women’s Suffrage
  • New Women, and those who campaigned for women’s rights, were often considered “sick” (see Willis 63)
women s suffrage in britain
Women’s Suffrage in Britain
  • 1832 Reform Acts: Women officially can’t vote
  • 1865: John Stuart Mill elected to Parliament
  • Suffragettes were imprisoned and force-fed
    • This shocked the British public
  • 1903: Emmeline Pankhurst formed Women’s Social and Political Union
  • 1918 Qualification of Women Act: 30 and older
  • 1928 Representation of the People Act: 21 and older
women s suffrage in the u s

Women’s Suffrage in the U.S.

Iron Jawed Angels (2004)

important issues in this film
Important Issues in This Film
  • United States and suffrage
    • Individual states could allow the vote, but no Constitutional Amendment existed
    • Wyoming was first to allow women’s suffrage
    • The 19th Amendment passed in 1920
negative stereotypes of suffragettes and new women
Negative Stereotypes of Suffragettes and “New Women”
  • Carrie Nation was a famous 19th century American woman who opposed the sale of alcohol
  • Had a reputation for vandalizing establishments that sold alcohol
  • Her image was used as an icon for feminists

Described herself as “a bulldog running along at the feet of Jesus, barking at what He doesn't like”

nawsa nwp
NAWSA NWP
    • National American Women’s Suffrage Association
    • Typically favored Democrats
  • Notable leaders
    • Susan B Anthony (1890 – 1900)
    • Carrie Chapman Catt (1900 – 1904, 1915)
    • Anna Howard Shaw (1904 – 1915)
  • National Women’s Party
  • Did not align itself politically
  • Founded by Alice Paul in 1916
quakerism
Quakerism

This is the religion that Alice Paul belonged to.

Throughout the 19th century, Quakers advocated to effect reforms first within their religion and then in the wider arena of American politics:

  • Ending Slavery
  • Fair Treatment of Native Americans
  • Women's Rights
  • Conflict Resolution
  • Relief for All Who Suffer
alice paul 1885 1977
Alice Paul1885 – 1977
  • Had Ph.D. from U of PA
  • Founded NWP
  • Original author of proposed Equal Rights Amendment of 1923
  • Her home is now the Sewall-Belmont House and Museum in D.C.
lucy burns 1879 1966
Lucy Burns1879 - 1966
  • With Alice Paul, she helped form the NWP
  • One of the first women to attend Yale
  • Her activism was inspired by Emmeline Pankhurst
inez millholand 1886 1916
Inez Millholand1886 - 1916
  • Suffered from Pernicious Anemia
  • Suddenly collapsed during a speech.
  • Her last public words were, "Mr. President, how long must women wait for liberty?"[1]
  • Known as the martyr of the Women's Suffrage movement.
ida wells barnett 1862 1931
Ida Wells-Barnett1862 - 1931
  • Journalist, newspaper editor, activist
  • Exposed racial hate crimes in the South
  • Founded the National Afro-American Council, which later became the NAACP
  • Formed the Women's Era Club, the first civic organization for African-American women