Chapter 13: Asian Empires Section 2: Mongol & Ming empires
Do Now Take out Homework Copy Objectives: SWBAT compare and contrast East Asian societies, politics and economies, under the rule of various Mongolian and Ming emperors. Ch. 13.2 Mongol & ming empires
Who were the Mongolians? • Warriors, horsemen, nomads • Tribes fight each other • Tribes united by Genghis Khan • Mongol Empire included China, Central Asia, and extended into Eastern Europe Mongol empire (12oos )
United warring Mongol tribes Conquered China, Central Asia Military discipline Used cannon warfare to conquer walled cities of China 1. GENGHIs KHAN: MONGOL conqueror
NOT oppressive to conquered people Ended the civil servant system Made states pay a tribute. DQ: What do we call such states? Think of the Tang dynasty. Rules with toleration, justice DQ: Why? Answer: PaxMongolica (peace) Political peace = Economic growth DQ: How could war destabilize the empire’s economy? Do wars today destabilize economies? GENGHI KHAN’s politics: how does he rule?
Trade: Silk Road • Trade route joining Europe, Middle East and Asia • Movement of tools, food, ideas • Cultural Exchanges (cultural diffusion) • China • windmills, gunpowder, porcelain, playing cards to Europe • Papermaking technology to the Middle East in return for crops and trees GENGHIs KHAN: economy
Conquests south China (1279) – Vietnam • Yuan Dynasty • Rules from Cambulac (Beijing) • Military and high government jobs reserved for Mongolians • DQ: Why? • Tolerant toward other religions & visitors • Welcomes visitors • Marco Polo • Italian merchant, lives there 17 years • Writes a book about Asia’s wealth • Europeans become interested in China WHY? 2. Kublai KHAN politics: how does he rule?
Extended the Grand Canal to Beijing Trade with Europe, Middle East Economy is thriving Problems: large empire = large costs Kublai KHAN: Economy
Chinese peasant leader who organized an army Takes China back from Mongols Ming Dynasty Pushes Mongols past the Great Wall Restored the civil service system Restored Confucianism – emphasis on duty, honesty, loyalty 3. zhuyuanzhang: Politics
Economy thrives Improved farming: surplus of rice Farm crops from Europe and America (corn, sweet potatoes) Cities: artisans make porcelain, tools, paper Technology: print books Art: blue-white porcelain vases, literature, world’s 1st detective stories, poetry, opera 3. zhuyuanzhang: economy
Promoted China’s power overseas (Middle East, Africa) • Sailed with 162 ships • Collected tributes from other states • Confucian scholars criticize Zheng He • See no reason for exploration • Say it is too costly • Want to preserve ancient traditions and do not want foreign influences in China. 4. Zheng He (1405)
Who were the four emperors we learned about? Which ones were Mongolians? Describe the empire under their rule. Which ones were Chinese? Who established the Ming dynasty? Describe China during the Ming dynasty. JOURNAL: Which of these 4 emperors do you think was the most successful? Use examples to support your answer. Closing : Review