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Air Quality Management in Mumbai

Air Quality Management in Mumbai. V.K.Phatak MMRDA. What is Air Pollution?.

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Air Quality Management in Mumbai

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  1. Air Quality Management in Mumbai V.K.Phatak MMRDA

  2. What is Air Pollution? High School Science taught us that air is composed of Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water Vapour. However in typical urban environment, air has other substances which in excess of certain proportions could be harmful to human health, vegetation or built properties. This could be called air pollution.

  3. Common Air Pollutants US EPA identified Criteria Pollutants based on their health impacts. These are Sulphur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, Carbon Monoxide and Ozone. In addition VOCs are listed as common air pollutant causing smog. EPA prescribes Primary Standards to protect health and Secondary Standards prevent environmental & property damage.

  4. Effects of Air Pollutants

  5. Effects of Air Pollutants

  6. Sources of Air Pollution • SO2 : Burning of fuel, Industrial Processes • Nox : Burning of gasoline, natural gas, coal, oil etc, Vehicle exhaust, Power Stations • SPM : Burning of fuel, Vehicle exhaust, Industrial sources, burning of Refuge, re-suspension of dust • CO : Burning of gasoline, natural gas, coal, oil etc. • Lead : Leaded gasoline, paint, smelters, Manufacturing of Lead storage batteries • Ozone: Chemical reaction of pollutants, VOCs and Nox in the presence of heat and sunlight. • VOCs: Released from burning fuel (including Natural Gas), solvents, paints, glues. Cars are important source of VOCs

  7. National Standards for Air Pollution

  8. EPA Standards for Air Pollution

  9. Situation in Mumbai

  10. Air Pollution Trends in Mumbai

  11. Seasonal Variation of Air Pollution in Mumbai

  12. Locations/ (Land Use) SO2 (g/m3) NOx (g/m3) SPM (g/m3) Year 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 Worli (C) 23 30.26 22.16 35 34.3 31.25 270 218 186.1 Khar (C/R ) 13 20.87 16.16 48 36.35 69.25 280 306 290 Andheri (I/C) 17 26.33 16.16 29 41.48 39.33 219 290 230.8 Borivali (R) 6 9.09 6.91 37 22.22 13.91 252 243 154.8 Tilaknagar (C) - 35.41 22.58 - 46.21 38.75 - 341 282.2 Maravali (I) 16 27.47 26.33 49 46.21 64.66 356 424 388 Geographical Variations

  13. Ambient Air Quality at Traffic Intersections

  14. OBSERVATIONS ON TREND • Sulphur Dioxide Levels are well within limits mainly due to use of low sulphur fuel by industries and low sulphur Diesel by vehicles • Nitrogen Oxide Levels are well within limits. However increasing trend in last two years may be due to increase in number of vehicles. • Lead Emitted mainly from leaded gasoline used in vehicles. However at present only unleaded gasoline is used in Mumbai • SPM Exceeds all over Mumbai and shows increasing trend. All studies have recommended Action plan for reduction of SPM especially PM 10.

  15. OBSERVATIONS ON TREND • Carbon Monoxide Levels are high near Traffic Junctions. Traffic Police and Pedestrians near Traffic junctions are affected. CO easily gets converted to CO2. • Seasonal Variations Pollution levels markedly rise in Winter. This can be mainly attributed to adverse meteorological conditions prevailing in Winter – low wind speeds, likely pockets of inversion.

  16. Ozone The ground level Ozone is the result of chemical reaction between Oxides of Nitrogen and Volatile organic Compounds in presence of heat and sunlight. Given the fact such situation exists in Mumbai, monitoring ozone seems to deserve attention. though ozone is not being monitored at present. ( Ozone at higher level is useful as it obstructs the ultra-violet rays, but Ozone at ground level is harmful)

  17. Pollution Load in Mumbai Sources Percent Load 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-2001 Domestic 1.52 1.5 3.0 Industrial & commercial 37.15 36.77 10.8 Transport 61.33 61.73 86.2

  18. Policies to be Pursued

  19. MAIN ISSUES • SPM and particularly PM 10 is the main pollutant. • Transport / Auto Emissions -- Main cause and source of SPM - PM10 • Impact on ambient air quality depends upon traffic congestion, sub optimal speeds, land use and built form along roads

  20. Vehicular Emissions • Engine Design -- Four - stroke engines / Euro I & II engines -- Catalytic Converters/ Oxidation catalyst • Cleaner Fuels -- Unleaded Fuel -- Low Sulphur Diesel • Alternate Fuel -- Use of CNG / LPG • Inspection & Maintenance and Certification of Vehicles

  21. Minimize Private Vehicle Use • Improve Public Transport • Expanding road network to reduce trip lengths e.g. East – West Links • Demand Management -- to reduce auto use in congested areas – parking fees, cordon pricing, area licensing etc. • Improve Pedestrian and NMT Facilities • Land use Planning to reduce need for long travels

  22. Air Quality and Impact Monitoring • Ambient Air Quality monitoring & dissemination • Emission Inventory • Surface and upper level Meteorological measurements • Personal Exposure Assessment • Health Assessment of Air Pollution in Mumbai

  23. Preparation of Particulate Matter Reduction Action Plan for Greater Mumbai Objective of the study is to: • Develop and adopt cost-effective strategy for reducing ambient levels of SPM and PM10 • Develop an Action Plan that targets at immediate reduction of PM10 • Prepare feasibility studies for the priority actions, in the urban transport sector that could be financed by MUTP.

  24. Thank you

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