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Fundamentals of air Pollution – Air Quality Management Yaacov Mamane Visiting Scientist NCR, Rome Dec 2006 - May 2007 CNR, Monterotondo, Italy
Air Quality Management? Is this a solution? Is it effective? Is it compatible with a sound society? Is it compatible with human rights?
What is AQM, Why is Needed • Designing and implementing methods and technologies for • tracking changes in pollutant emissions, • pollutant concentrations, and • human health and welfare outcomes • to document and ultimately improve the effectiveness of air pollution mitigation activities. • The aforementioned contributions of science and technology are made through monitoring, analysis, research, and development.
What is air quality management? Air quality management (AQM) refers to all the activities a regulatory authority undertakes to make sure that the air we breathe is safe, both outdoors and indoors. The AQM process is the system of understanding the sources that contribute to pollution in the air and the health and environmental effects of the pollutants, and then taking steps to reduce or control the sources to reach or maintain agreed upon target pollution levels in the air. These levels may vary from country to country, but the overall system for planning, assessing, characterizing, mitigating, and implementing control strategies is similar. While AQM is generally handled at the national government level, regional and local governments, industry, and thepublicall have important roles to play in this system. Each air quality management activity is related to the others. It is also important to recognize that the entire AQM process is dynamic - there is a continuous review and assessment of standards and strategies based on their effectiveness and new research on health and environmental effects.
Public Involvement Air Quality Goal Settings Emission Inventory Monitoring Human & Environmental Assessment Legistlation, Regulation & Implementation Control Strategies Air Quality Modeling Compliance & Enforcement
Integrated Air Quality Management System • Institutional mechanism: Local, regional, national, global • Assessment of air quality Monitoring Emission inventory Source apportionment Air pollution Exposure and damage • Evaluation of control strategies. • Development of AQM integrated strategy action plan • Strong implementation
Criteria Pollutants U.S. EPA uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality, and has established for each of them a National Ambient Air Quality Standards: • Particulate matter • Ground-level ozone • Nitrogen dioxide • Carbon monoxide • Sulfur dioxide • Lead When an area does not meet the air quality standard for one of the criteria pollutants, it may be defined as non-attainment (especially for ozone, carbon monoxide, and some particulate matter). Non-attainment classifications may be used to specify what air pollution reduction measures an area must adopt, and when the area must reach attainment.
E E E Control strategy development - How to determine the best approach to provide the emission reductions necessary to achieve the air quality goal. Three primary considerations in designing an effective control strategy are: (1) Environmental: factors such as equipment locations, ambient air quality conditions, adequate utilities (i.e., water for scrubbers), legal requirements, noise levels, and the contribution of the control system as a pollutant; (2) Engineering: factors such as contaminant characteristics (abrasiveness, toxicity, etc.), gas stream characteristics, and performance characteristics of the control system; and (3) Economic: factors such as capital cost, operating costs, equipment maintenance, and the lifetime of the equipment. Pollution prevention should also be considered (eliminating pollution emissions at the source, substituting toxic raw materials, alternative processes, …)
Example of a local Problem – New Cars in the Port of Ashdod – What to do About it?
Principles of Control Strategies Controls should cover stationary, mobile, and area sources. Utilize reasonably available control technology. Provide Examples. For mobile sources, examples include tighter emission controls for vehicles and low-sulfur fuel standards. For major stationary sources apply permits for emission limits (new vs existing(. The basic types of emission control technology are mechanical collectors, wet scrubbers, bag houses, electrostatic precipitators, combustion systems (thermal oxidizers), condensers, absorbers, adsorbers, and biological degradation. Selection should be based environmental, engineering, and economic considerations. First steps in air quality management process - focus on obvious sources of air pollution and the quickest means of control. More sophisticated innovative and comprehensive strategies (emissions trading, banking, and emissions caps) can be incorporated as a further refinement as the strategy continues. Local and regional control measures and are both necessary for a successful strategy. Successful control strategies are usually adopted into a regulatory program with implementation deadlines and mechanisms for enforcement. The goal for all control strategies is to achieve real and measurable emission reductions.
Sources of emission, represented in various emission inventories for industrial, commercial, or domestic sources and the transportation system, as well as land- use related sources (biogenic emissions of VOCs, particulate matter from soils and street surfaces). • Monitoring system observing ambient air quality and historical trends with emphasis on the peak values that may exceed regulatory standards. • Dispersion and transformation processes, driven by emissions, meteorology, and local topography, that translate emissions into the ambient concentrations, represented by air quality simulation models. • Impact assessment, which translates the ambient concentrations into costs in a general sense (e.g., in terms of public health and environmental damage.( • Control strategies which basically attempt to limit emissions, relocate them, or mitigate impacts where that is possible, with fuel quality constraints, end of pipe technologies, or temporary traffic restrictions being of the more noticeable instruments (Fedra and Haurie, 1999). • Communication tasks including various levels of regular reports, event driven warnings such as smog alarms, as well as the continuous information of the public on ambient air quality.
There Are Four Main Steps In Developing A Control Strategy • . • Determine priority pollutants - based on health effects and the severity of the air quality problem. • (2)Identify control measures.For specific source categories, choose the appropriate controls (Information source: U.S. EPA's Clean Air Technology Center. • Incorporate the control measures into a plan - written plan with implementation dates to formalize the strategy. It is important to adopt a regulatory program and include it in the plan so that control measures will be enforceable. • (4) Involve the public. As with the other management activities related to the AQM process, it is critical to contact the regulated community and other affected parties, asthe public should be consultedas part of the strategy development process. This early consultation reduces later challenges and streamlines implementation.
Air Quality Modeling Air quality modeling is the necessary substitute/supplement for air quality monitoring. Models can be used to predict the impacts from a potential emitter. Models can be applied for the simulation of ambient pollution concentrations under different policy options. Finally, models can be used to determine the relative contributions from different sources as a tool for tracking trends, monitoring compliance, and making policy decisions. Modeling for air quality management purposes typically falls into two broad categories: dispersion modelingandreceptor-based modeling( The choice of model depends on a combination of the available data and the needs of the researcher (seeU.S. EPA's detailed recommendations).
Human & Environmental Assessment Determining how various pollutants may impacts human health and the environment requires input from a range of disciplines, such as toxicology, public health, health sciences and epidemiology. Effects directly on human health can include increases in the risk of death (mortality) or increases in adverse health effect (morbidity). Adverse health effects: acute effects (headaches or eye irritation), and chronic effects (emphysema or asthma). Environmental effects, including those causing indirect damages to humans (aesthetic damages, problems of odor, noise, and poor visibility, productivity of farmland, forests, and commercial fisheries(. Environmental effects also encompass damages associated with preserving, protecting, and improving the quality of ecological resources. Another aspect of human and environmental assessment is risk assessment. Risk assessment is the scientific process of evaluating adverse effects and is usually geographically limited, though the defined geography can vary tremendously, for example local, regional and global.
Legislation, Regulation & Implementation Legistlation - Synonymous with law or statute, legislation is established by a governing authority and in general can be enforced by the courts. Air quality legislation generally contains broad program goals and objectives as well as roles and responsibilities for achieving national air quality protection. In the U.S., national legislation is developed and finalized within the U.S. Congress and signed by the President. Regulation - Synonymous with rule, regulations are developed by a governing authority and usually provide more specific information for how the broad legislative objectives will be met. In the U.S., national environmental regulations are developed primarily by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).Implementation - The process of developing detailed plans, procedures and mechanisms needed to ensure legislative and regulatory requirements are achieved. In the U.S., though much legislation is passed nationally, individual States are the primary implementers of air quality management programs.
Typical Standards in Air Pollution • Air Pollution Standards • Emission standards • Work Atmosphere Standards • Fuel Standards • Motor Vehicle Standards • Zonning Standards • Environmental Impact Statements • Permits
Compliance & Enforcement Compliance involves actions and programs designed to ensure the environmental laws of the land are followed. Enforcement is focused on those situations when the law is not followed to ensure a rapid return to compliance with these laws. Compliance and enforcement are very complex issues, involving different aspects of a country's legal and policy framework. As such, there is no clear cut method for establishing a program. Compliance Assistance:National and local agencies have developed numerous industry specific documents available to assist in the development of a compliance program. Compliance Inspectionsare a key element of a compliance program. Civil Enforcementencompasses the investigations and cases brought to address the most significant violations. Criminal Enforcementis designed to identify, apprehend, and assist prosecutors in successfully convicting those who are responsible for the most significant and egregious violations of environmental law that pose substantial risks to human health and the environment. As with other activities related to the AQM process, it is critical to contact the public, the regulated community and other affected parties.
Emissions for Gasoline and Diesel Car, in g/km, for a set route of ~4 km
EPA reaches agreement with Goldschmidt Chemical CHICAGO (Feb. 8, 2007) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 has reached an agreement with Goldschmidt Chemical Corp. on alleged clean-air violations. The agreement, which includes a $600,000 environmental project and a $25,000 penalty, resolves EPA allegations that Goldschmidt violated its state operating permit and state air pollution regulations by emitting too much organic material from tanks and reactors at the plant.For its environmental project, Goldschmidt will remove and properly dispose of material in its sludge lagoon and then permanently close the lagoon. Companies that violate the Clean Air Act may voluntarily propose environmental projects as part of their settlements. EPA may reduce monetary penalties if it believes a project will cut pollution significantly and goes beyond what is required by EPA regulations
Asbestos Contractor Charged in Connection with Asbestos Waste Abandoned in Camden, New Jersey Release date: 02/13/2007 PHILADELPHIA -- United States Attorney today announced the charging of Randall G. Cone with violating the Clean Air Act in connection with the transportation of asbestos waste in 2000 and the discovery that the asbestos waste had been abandoned in a trailer in Camden, New Jersey.According to the information, Cone was hired in the spring of 2000 to remove and dispose of asbestos-containing material from a building in Philadelphia that was being converted into a charter school. Cone hired an individual to transport the removed asbestos material for disposal, but asbestos-containing material was eventually abandoned in a semi-trailer at a parking lot in Camden. Cone did not complete the required asbestos waste shipment record at the time of transport. A company redeveloping the Ferry Avenue property discovered the trailer and its contents in 2005,and paid approximately $18,000 to dispose of the asbestos waste and trailer. If convicted, Cone faces a maximum sentence of two years imprisonment, a fine of $250,000, two years supervised release, and a special assessment of $100.
Federal Clean Air Act case settled with Redwood City auto dealer; fourth case resolved for “Freon” violation with Bay Area car repair shops Release date 01/09/2007 SAN FRANCISCO- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has reached an agreement with a Bay Area Ford dealership for alleged Freon violations of the Federal Clean Air Act. Towne Ford, failed to comply with the requirements of the Clean Air Act’s regulations that requires that air conditioning mechanics pass an EPA-certified training and testing course. The EPA training is required regardless of any other training or certification mechanics may have. The facility must also maintain adequate records to demonstrate EPA certification of their mechanics and refrigerant recovery and recycling equipment.The training regulations help ensure the proper handling of ozone-depleting and global warming substances that go into a car’s air conditioner, thereby minimizing the release of these chemicals into the atmosphere. The adverse effects of ultra-violet radiation from a thinning ozone layer include skin cancers, cataracts and immune system suppression. In September, South City Motors of South San Francisco agreed to pay a $20,000 penalty and Hayward Ford of Hayward agreed to pay a $10,000 penalty; and in August Broadway Motors of Oakland agreed to pay a $5,416 penalty to settle Freon cases with the EPA.
Ambient Air Monitoring and Emissions Measurement Ambient Monitoring is the systematic, long-term assessment of pollutant levels by measuring the quantity and types of certain pollutants in the surrounding, outdoor air. Emissions Measurement is the process of monitoring particulate and gaseous emissions from a specific source.
Ambient Air Monitoring and Emissions Measurement Air quality monitoring is carried out to: • assess the extent of pollution, • ensure compliance with national legislation, • evaluate control options, and, • provide data for air quality modeling. There are a number of different methods to measure any given pollutant, varying in complexity, reliability, and detail of data. These range from: • simple passive sampling techniques, to, • highly sophisticated remote sensing devices. A monitoring strategy should carefully examine the options to determine which methodology is most appropriate, taking into account initial investment costs, operating costs, reliability of systems, and ease of operation.
Ambient Air Monitoring and Emissions Measurement The locations for monitoring stations depend on the purpose of the monitoring. Most monitoring networks are designed with human health objectives in mind, and monitoring stations are therefore established in population centers. Many governments (local, regional or national) give specific guidelines on where to monitor within these areas - next to busy roads, in city center locations, or at a location of particular concern (e.g., a school, hospital). Background monitoring stations are also established, to act as a "control" when determining source apportionment.