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Air Quality Management in North America. Key Messages. Canada & U.S. have a long history of environmental partnership Canada & U.S. work jointly on several transboundary air issues Both countries manage a domestic agenda. Bilateral Agreements. Federal partnerships

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Air Quality Management in North America


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Air Quality Management in North America

    2. Key Messages • Canada & U.S. have a long history of environmental partnership • Canada & U.S. work jointly on several transboundary air issues • Both countries manage a domestic agenda

    3. Bilateral Agreements • Federal partnerships • Canada -US Air Quality Agreement (AQA) • Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) • Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (GLBTS) • State/Provincial partnerships • Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadaian Premiers • Canada-U.S. Georgia Basin /Puget Sound Initiative

    4. 2 Trilateral Agreements Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) • Air Quality Program • North American Air Working Group • North American Emissions Inventory • Trade and Transport Corridors • Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) Program • North American Regional Action Plans (NARAPs) • Completed: mercury, PCBs, chlordane and DDT, • Under development: lindane, dioxins/furans/HCB • Monitoring & Assessment Framework • Pollutant Release and Transfer Registry • Environment & Trade

    5. Trilateral Agreements Con’t • NARSTO • North American consortium for support of atmospheric research in support of air quality management • a public/private partnership which includes Canada, United States and Mexico • mission to coordinate & enhance policy-relevant scientific research and assessment of tropospheric pollution behavior including PM & ozone

    6. Joint Policy1991 Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement Acid Rain Commitments • sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides reductions • research and science Framework for Cooperation • management structure • biennial reporting

    7. History of Cooperation 1997 “Joint Plan of Action” Ozone and PM • Commitment to start to address ozone and PM signed by Minister and Administrator • Established a mandate for joint work • Allowed for development of joint characterization of transboundary ozone issue • Set framework for future joint PM work

    8. Ozone Annex • Signed December 7, 2000 • Commits U.S. and Canada to specific emission reduction measures that will reduce transboundary flows of NOx and VOC and meet domestic air quality goals • Identifies a transboundary ozone region for Eastern Canada & U.S. where domestic reductions will reduce transboundary ozone and precursors

    9. Key Elements of Ozone Annex • NOx and VOC Emission Reduction Programs for Canada and the United States • Annual reporting of industry emissions and air quality within 500 km of border • Tracking of progress, health impacts and transboundary flow • Western Region enabled • “Revisiting in 2004”

    10. Joint Work Plan Agreed for Inhalable Particles • Monitoring of ambient PM in both countries • Joint modeling of management strategies for NOx, SOx, VOC and ammonia emissions • Will make a decision to on whether to negotiate a Canada-U.S. annex on transboundary fine inhalable particles within 2 years

    11. Canada-Wide Standards for PM and Ozone • The CWS for PM and Ozone are: • for PM2.5 30 µg/m3, 24 hour averaging time, by year 2010 • for Ozone 65 ppb, 8-hour averaging time, by 2010

    12. Implementation of CWS for PM and Ozone • Jurisdictions have committed to: • develop implementation plans • complete a list of Joint Initial Actions by 2005 • report on progress on meeting the CWS starting in 2006 • review science underlying the Standards to determine if the standard should be revised or supplemented

    13. Acid Rain PolicyThe Post-2000 Strategy The Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000 signed in Oct. 1998 to address the continuing problem of acid rain: • signed by 26 federal, provincial and territorial Energy and Environment Ministers • primary long-term goal is to meet critical loads across Canada • calls for a number of specific actions

    14. Strategy implementation:New E. Canada SO2 targets

    15. Overview of U.S. Efforts • National Ambient Air Quality Standards • Ozone • Fine Particles • Air Toxics Programs • Vehicle Programs • Power Generation Sector-Focused Programs • Acid Rain Program • Clean Air Interstate Rule

    16. 1997 8-hr Ozone Standard • Average Time: 8 hours • Level: 0.08 ppm • Compliance Period: 3 consecutive years • Attainment Test: average annual 4th high daily max 8-hr concentration <= 0.08 ppm

    17. PM NAAQS • Promulgated July 18, 1997 (62 FR 38651) • Based on Health Impacts • New PM2.5 standards • PM10 standards

    18. States controlled for both SO2 and NOx States controlled for ozone season NOx only States not covered under the IAQR rule CAIR: Affected Region and Emission Caps Emissions Caps* (million tons) 2010 2015 SO2 3.9 2.7 NOx 1.6 1.3 *For the affected region.

    19. Ozone and PM CAIR combined with Other Clean Air Programs 317 Eastern Counties Exceeding Standards in 2002 O3 Only ( 218 Counties) PM2.5 Only ( 43 Counties) Both O3 & PM2.5 ( 56 Counties) 39 Remaining Eastern Counties Likely to Exceed Standards with CAIR in 2015 PM2.5 standard = 15 µg/m3 8-hour Ozone Standard = .08 ppm O3 Only ( 26 Counties) PM2.5 Only ( 13 Counties) Both O3 & PM2.5 ( 0 Counties)

    20. Projected Emission Reductions of SO2 and NOx under the Proposed CAIR and Recent Mobile Source Rules Note: Mobile source rules also result in reductions of VOCs and PM. The IAQR also lowers mercury emissions. Projections for the proposed IAQR are from the Integrated Planning Model. Projections for mobile source rules are from either the MOBILE, NONROAD, MOVES, Fuels, or CALINE models. Notably, the Title IV and NOx SIP call programs have also lead to significant power sector emissions reductions for SO2 and NOx.

    21. Vehicle Programs • Tier 2 standards for light-duty vehicles begin in 2004 • Requires passenger vehicles to be 77% to 95% cleaner than today; Reduces sulphur content of gasoline by up to 90% • Heavy Duty Diesel standards begin in 2007 • Reduces emissions of NOx in 2030 by 2.6 million tons and NMHC by 115,000 tons per year. PM will be reduced by 109,000 tons/year in 2030. • Nonroad Standards: • Tier 3 Nonroad Diesel rule published in 1998 and takes effect between 2006-08; • Final rule for nonroad diesel fuel that will decrease the allowable levels of sulfur in fuel used in marine vessels by 99 percent in May 2004 • Announced intent to propose more stringent emission standards for all new commercial, recreational, and auxiliary marine diesel engines except the very large engines used for propulsion on deep-sea vessels

    22. United States – Emissions Trends

    23. Review of Ozone and PM Standards • Canada • report to Ministers on findings of PM and Ozone atmospheric, environmental and health science and socio-economics (2003) • Complete additional scientific, technical and economic analysis (2005) • Assess the need and if appropriate revise the CWS for PM and Ozone beyond 2015 (2010) • United States • PM • Proposal Late 2005 • Final Late 2006 • Ozone • Final 2007

    24. Asian Dust Storm Event: April 2001 (NASA/TOMS) (4/7) (4/9) (4/11) (4/12) (4/13) (4/14)

    25. ASIAN DUST REACHED WESTERN U.S. (April 1998) SF LA GOES Satellite Image PM10 West Coast (Courtesy of Prof. Husar, WUSL)

    26. ICAP Trans-Atlantic Modeling Domain