Oregon Reading FirstDIBELS Refresher Nonsense Word Fluency and Oral Reading Fluency Spring 2009 © 2010 by the Oregon Reading First Center Center on Teaching and Learning
Kindergarten Increase student automaticity in whole word reading (by the end of kindergarten, students will read VC and CVC words as whole units) First Grade Provide targeted instruction, based on student need, to all strategic and intensive students Oregon Reading First Project Level Goals (2008-2009)
General Scoring Reminders • Be sure to begin scoring on the front of the double-sided scoring sheet. This side will have the name of the measure, scoring directions, and identifying information (e.g., student’s name, school, grade, and teacher).
General Scoring Reminders • If during NWF administration the student reads all 50 words on the front side of the scoring sheet, please turn the sheet over to continue administration. • This side will only have the student’s name and ID number as identifying information. Julia Simon
General Scoring Reminders Julia A. • Please use forms with students for whom they were created. Forms were created using information farmed from the DIBELS database and should have the following information on them: school, grade, student’s name, teacher’s name, and ID number.
General Scoring Reminders • If you have a student for whom there is no form with this information printed, please use one of the blank forms that have been provided. • On this blank form in the upper right hand corner please write clearly the following information: • School • Grade • Student’s name • Teacher’s name
General Scoring Reminders • We recommend going through the list included in your benchmark materials that lists all of the students for whom forms have been provided and creating forms for those whose names are not on the list before DIBELS testing begins. • This should help minimize confusion about who has been tested and who has not…. • Please test each student only once!
General Scoring Recommendations • Have teachers fill in the examiner and date administered boxes in the upper right hand corner of the page on each form. This allows you to see if the same scoring errors are consistently being made by the same person, and to track when testing occurred.
General Scoring Recommendations 2. Spot-check scoring of between 10% and 20% of forms in each grade for row totals, total CLS, and total WRC before data entry. • Examination of the winter benchmark probes for kindergarten revealed that the scoring errors ranged from 1-17 in calculating CLS and/or WRC. Anywhere from 3% to 28% of the probes in a school had scoring errors! • Examination of the winter benchmark probes for first grade revealed that the scoring errors ranged from 1- 40 in calculating CLS and/or WRC. Anywhere from 2%to 38% of the probes in a school had scoring errors! 3. Once students’ scores have been entered into the DIBELS data system, we also recommend spot-checking data entry to make sure the correct scores have been entered for students.
Who administers your benchmarking probes? • Coach • District Team • Building Team • Classroom Teacher • Instructional Assistants
Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF): • What important skill does NWF assess? Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. • What is the appropriate time and grade? Middle of the year in kindergarten and throughout first grade. • What is the goal? First Grade: How well? 50 correct letter-sounds (CLS) or more and 15 words recoded completely and correctly (WRC) By when? Middle of first grade Kindergarten: How well? 25 correct letter-sounds (CLS) or more and 8 words recoded completely and correctly (WRC) By when?End of kindergarten
How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure? • Materials: • Examiner probe • Student pages (practice page “sim lut” and test page) • Stopwatch • Pencil • Preparing the student: • Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable) • Provide the model in standardized manner and follow correction procedures as necessary
How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure? Say these specific directions to the child: “Look at this word (point to the first word on the practice probe). It’s a make-believe word. Watch me read the word: (point to the letter “s”) /s/, (point to the letter “i”) /i/, (point to the letter “m”) /m/ “sim” (run your finger fast through the whole word). I can say the sounds of the letters, /s/ /i/ /m/ (point to each letter), or I can read the whole word “sim” (run your finger fast through the whole word). “Your turn to read a make-believe word. Read this word the best you can (point to the word “lut”). Make sure you say any sounds you know.”
What would you do? • A student gets the first try incorrect and you administer the error correction. The student makes another mistake on the second try. What do you do next? • Help the student sound it out. • Move onto the next part of the directions. • Ask them to try it again. • Repeat the error correction.
How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure? Place the student copy of the probe in front of the child. Here are some more make-believe words(point to the student probe).Start here(point to the first word)and go across the page(point across the page).When I say “begin,” read the words the best you can. Point to each letter and tell me the sound or read the whole word. Read the words the best you can. Put your finger on the first word. Ready, begin. Student Copy
NWF: Maximizing Administration Time • Stopwatch: • Start watch after you say, “Ready, begin” and time for 1 minute. • Scoring: • Underline each correct letter sound produced (see specific scoring rules and examples). • Slash each incorrect letter sound produced. • Maintaining momentum: • Allow the student 3 seconds for each letter sound. After 3 seconds, provide the sound to keep the student moving. • Discontinue: • If a student does not get any correct in the first row, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0). • Ending testing: • At the end of 1 minute, put a bracket after the last letter-sound/word produced and calculate the total letter-sounds correct in one minute.
Scoring Rules for NWF Correct Letter Sounds A correct letter sound is scored as the most common soundin English. • For example, all the vowels are scored for the short sound and the most common sound for the letter “c” is /k/. See pronunciation guide for remaining letter sounds. Marking the form Underline exactly the way the student completes task. • For example, if the student goes sound-by-sound, underline each letter individually. If the student reads the target as a whole word, underline the entire word.
Scoring Rules for NWF:Marking the Teleform • Encourage testers while administering to remember the level of information we’re trying to obtain from the NWF measure. • If we can categorize the strategies students are using to read the words on NWF into one of the four categories (sound-by-sound, recoded, partial blends, or whole word reading) we can then take that information into consideration while grouping students and planning instruction. • The directions on the Teleform are as follows: • Because we use the dashes and slashes from the scoring to determine the strategy used to read the words, they are very important; please don’t allow this type of scoring to occur: No information is provided about the strategies used by the student to read these words!
Scoring Rules for NWF 1. Discontinue Rule. If the student does not get any sounds correct in words 1-5, discontinue the task and record a score of 0.
Scoring Rules for NWF 2. Correct letter sounds. Underline the individual letters for letter sounds produced correctly in isolation and score 1 point for each letter sound produced correctly. For example, if the stimulus word is “tob” and the student says /t/ /o/ /b/, the individual letters would be underlined with a score of three. Example: Correct Letter Sounds
Scoring Rules for NWF 3. Correct words. Use a single underline under multiple letters for correct letter sounds blended together and give credit for each letter sound correspondence produced correctly. For example, if the stimulus word is “tob” and the student says “tob”, one underline would be used with a score of 3. Example: Correct Words
Scoring Rules for NWF 4. Partially correct words. If a word is partially correct, underline the corresponding letters for letter sounds produced correctly. Put a slash ( ) through the letter if the corresponding letter sound is incorrect. For example, if the word is “tob” and the student says “toab” (with a long o), the letters “t” and “b” would be underlined, and the letter “o” would be slashed giving a score of 2. Example: Partially Correct Words
Scoring Rules for NWF 5. Repeated sounds Letter sounds pronounced twice while sounding out the word are given credit only once. For example, if stimulus word is "sim" and the student says /s/ /i/ /im/, the letter "i" is underlined once and the student receives 1 point for the phoneme "i" even though the letter "i" was pronounced correctly twice (a total of 3 for the entire word). Example: Repeated Sounds
Scoring Rules for NWF 6.3-second rule - sound by sound If student hesitates for 3 seconds on a letter, score the letter sound incorrect, provide the correct letter sound, point to the next letter, and say, "What sound?" • This prompt may be repeated. For example, if the stimulus word is "tob" and the student says /t/ (3 seconds), prompt by saying, "/o/ (point to b) What sound?" Example: 3-second rule-sound by sound
Scoring Rules for NWF 7.3-second rule - word by word If student hesitates for 3 seconds on a word, score the word incorrect, provide the correct word, point to the next word, and say, "What word?" This prompt may be repeated. For example, if the stimulus words are "tob dos et" and the student says, "tob" (3 seconds), prompt by saying "dos (point to et) What word?" Example: 3-secong rule-word by word
Scoring Rules for NWF 8. Sound order – sound by sound. Letter sounds produced in isolation but out of order are scored as correct. For example, if stimulus word is “tob” and the student points to and says, /b/ /o/ /t/, all letters would be underlined, with a score of 3. The purpose of this rule is to give students credit as they are beginning to learn individual letter sound correspondences. Example: Sound Order-Sound by Sound
Scoring Rules for NWF 9. Sound order – word by word. Blended letter sounds must be correct and in the correct place (beginning, middle, end) to receive credit. For example, if stimulus word is “tob” and the student says, “bot”, only the “o” would be correct and in the correct place, for a score of 1. Example: Sound Order-Word by Word
Scoring Rules for NWF 10. Insertions. Insertions are not scored as incorrect. For example, if the stimulus word is “sim” and the student says “stim”, the letters “s,” “i,” and “m” would be underlined and full credit would given for the word with no penalty for the insertion of /t/. Example: Insertions
Scoring Rules for NWF 11. Dialect and articulation. The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language inferences. This is a professional judgment and should be based on the student’s responses and any prior knowledge of their speech patterns. For example, a student may regularly substitute /th/ for /s/. If the stimulus word is “sim” and the student says “thim,” the letter “s” would be underlined and credit for a correct-letter sound correspondence would be given. Example: Dialect and Articulation
Scoring Rules for NWF 12. Self correct. If a student makes an error and corrects him/herself within 3 seconds, write “SC” above the letter sound or word and count it as correct. 13. Skips row. If a student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row in scoring.
Additional Reminders for NWF • Remember that there should be only a 3 second pause provided for each sound/word that the student is attempting to read. This means that every student, even if they got no letter sounds correct, should have attempted the first 5 words on the measure. • Be sure to underline all sounds that have been read. If sounds are not underlined, they will be scored as incorrect: • w o d = 2 CLS, 0 WRC
Additional Reminders for NWF • Also, be sure that slashes and underlines are appropriately represented. If, for example, a student reads the word sound by sound on the first attempt and gets a sound incorrect, but recodes and gets the entire word correct, the scoring should be: • t u m • Be sure testers are clear on the distinction between Correct Letter Sounds and Words Read Correct. • f ek (According to Roland, the slash on the ‘u’ means that the final sound was incorrect for ‘u’. If the scorer wants to signal that the student self-corrected the error when recoding, then the ‘sc’ mustbe included above the slash and underlined word) SC It is NOT possible for a student to get 2 CLS (f, k) and 1 WRC!
Remember NWF Logic 1. Slash over-rides an underline. • w an 2 cls 0 wrc 2. SC over-rides a slash. • w an 3 cls 1 wrc 3. Score the last sounds/words said. sc
Oral Reading Fluency (ORF): • What important skill does it assess? • Fluency and accuracy with connected text: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text leads to understanding. • What is the appropriate time and grade? • Middle of first grade through third grade • What is the goal: • To be fluent at the skill by end of first grade. • How well? 40 correct words or more • By when? End of first grade • What about second grade? • How well? 90 correct words or more • What about third grade? • How well? 110 correct words or more
Say these specific directions to the child: “Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say "stop," I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin.” How Do We Administer and Score the ORF Measure? • Materials: 1) Examiner probe 2) Student passages 3) Stopwatch 4) Pencil • Preparing the student: Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable)
ORF: Maximizing Administration Time • Stopwatch: • Start watch after student says the first word and time for 1 minute. • Scoring: • Slash each word produced incorrectly. • Maintaining momentum: • Allow student 3 seconds for each word. After 3 seconds, say the word to keep the student moving. • Discontinue: • If student does not get any correct in the first row, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0). • If student scores less than 10 on the first passage, do not administer the other two passages. • Ending testing: • At the end of 1 minute, put a bracket after the last word produced and calculate the number of correct words in one minute.
How Do We Administer and Score the ORF Measure? • Say these specific directions to the child: • “Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say "stop," I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin.”
Scoring Rules for ORF: 1.Correctly Read Words are pronounced correctly. A word must be pronounced correctly given the context of the sentence. • Example: The word “read” must be pronounced /reed/ when presented in the context of the following sentence: • Ben will read the story. WRC = 5 not as: • “Ben will red the story.” WRC = 4 2.Self-Corrected Words are counted as correct. Words misread initially but corrected within 3 seconds are counted as correct. • Example: • Dad likes to watch sports. WRC = 5 • read as: • “Dad likes to watch spin...(3 seconds)…sports.” WRC = 5
Scoring Rules for ORF 3.Repeated Words are counted as correct. Words said over again correctly are ignored. • Example: • I have a goldfish. WRC = 4 • read as: • “I have a ...have a goldfish.” WRC = 4 4.Dialectic variations in pronunciation that are explainable by local language norms are not errors. • Example: • We took the short cut. WRC = 5 • read as: • “We took the shot cut.” WRC = 5
Scoring Rules for ORF 5.Inserted Words are ignored. When students add extra words, they are not counted as correct words nor as reading errors. • Example: • I ate too much. WRC = 4 • read as: • “I ate way too much.” WRC = 4 6.Mispronounced or Substituted Words are counted as incorrect. • Example: • She lives in a pretty house. WRC = 6 • read as: • “She lives in a pretty home.” WRC = 5
Scoring Rules for ORF 7.Omitted/Skipped Words are counted as errors. • Example: • Mario climbed the old oak tree. WRC = 6 read as: • “Mario climbed the tree.” WRC = 4
Scoring Rules for ORF 7.Omitted/Skipped Words(continued) Words that are omitted if a student skips an entire line of the passage are also counted as errors. The Block Party We had a big party on my street last weekend. We didn’t 12 have to dress up or bring presents. There was food, music, and 24 games.The party was so big it took up almost the whole street. 37 There were signs across] the ends of the street to stop the cars 50 from driving on the street. It was safe to play in the street 63 because there were no cars. The party was called a block party. 75 Total Words: 41 Errors: 14 Words Read Correct: 27
Scoring Rules for ORF • Words must be read in accordance with the context of the passage 8.Hyphenated Words count as two words if both parts can stand alone as individual words. Hyphenated words count as one word if either part cannot stand alone as an individual word. 9. Numerals and Datesmust be read correctly in the context of the sentence. 10.Abbreviations must be read as pronounced in normal conversation. For example, “TV” could be read as "teevee" or "television," but “Mr.” must be read as "mister."
Tips for Scoring • Student must read exactly what is on the page. • Self-corrections and insertions are ignored and not counted as errors. • Simply slash errors until you feel comfortable writing in the error types. • Score what you hear! • Practice with at least 7 students before using the scores to make programming decisions. • Look over passages you are presenting to ensure pacing is efficient. • Use the middle score of the three passages read to assess the student’s skill. • Have student read all three passages in one sitting
One Last Reminder… • Don’t forget to make copies of your forms before sending them to the ORFC!