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Jim Crow Laws. Character in a minstrel act in 1832 A white man dressed up as a black man and danced ridiculously, singing the lyrics: "Weel about and turn about and do jis so, Eb'ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow." Stereotype of African Americans

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jim crow laws
Jim Crow Laws
  • Character in a minstrel act in 1832
  • A white man dressed up as a black man and danced ridiculously, singing the lyrics:

"Weel about and turn about and do jis so, Eb'ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow."

  • Stereotype of African Americans
  • Laws for use of railroads, voting, interracial marriage, etc.
plessy vs ferguson 1892
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1892
  • Arrested for sitting in a “white” train car
  • 7/8 white, 1/8 black, which was considered black in Louisiana
  • Plessy sued the state of Louisiana but Judge Ferguson ruled against him saying segregation was okay as long as facilities were “equal”
  • Supreme Court agreed – “separate but equal” okay: “equal” never enforced
naacp
NAACP
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  • Get rid of discrimination
  • Under Thurgood Marshall, the Legal Defense Fund was involved in several court cases against segregation
  • It helped blacks register to vote and fought for equal rights in housing and employment

Thurgood Marshall

jackie robinson 1947
Jackie Robinson1947
  • Served in the Army as an officer during WWII
  • 4 sport athlete at UCLA
  • ROY in MLB for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947
  • Inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1962
brown vs board of education may 1954
Brown vs. Board of EducationMay 1954

Linda Brown had to walk over a mile to school everyday even though the “white” school was only 7 blocks from her house

brown vs board of education may 19541
Brown vs. Board of EducationMay 1954

Precedent – Plessy vs. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal”

RESULT

  • Lost 1st trial, then taken to the Supreme Court
  • Unanimous agreement that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional (overturned Plessy case)
  • Began the desegregation of public schools

Thurgood Marshall

1st Black Supreme Court Justice

hernandez vs texas 1953
Hernandez vs. Texas1953

FACTS

  • Pete Hernandez was accused of murdering Joe Espinosa in Texas
  • The jury that convicted Hernandez had no Mexican Americans

RESULT

The Supreme Court reversed his conviction because no Mexican Americans had ever served on a jury in Texas

the death of emmett till august 1955
The Death of Emmett TillAugust 1955
  • 14 year old visiting relatives in Mississippi
  • On a dare, whistled at a white woman leaving a grocery store
  • Kidnapped, beaten, and shot 3 days later
  • Body was found 3 days later in a nearby river
the death of emmett till august 19551
The Death of Emmett TillAugust 1955

FACTS

  • Murderers confessed to the crime
  • Case brought to a jury trial (all white, all male) and they were found NOT GUILTY
  • Sold their story days later to a journalist
  • RESULT
  • - Emmett’s mother demanded an open casket funeral
  • - Known as the beginning of the Civil Rights movement

Emmett Till’s killers

the death of emmett till by bob dylan
Twas down in Mississippi not so long ago,When a young boy from Chicago town walked in a Southern door.This boy's dreadful tragedy you should all remember well,The color of his skin was black and his name was Emmett Till.Some men they dragged him to a barn and there they beat him up.They said they had a reason, but I disremember what.They tortured him and did some things too evil to repeat.There was screaming sounds inside the barn, there was laughing sounds out on the street.

Then they rolled his body down a gulf amidst a blood red rainAnd they threw him in the waters wide to cease his screaming pain.The reason that they killed him there, and I'm sure it ain't no lie,He was a black-skinned boy so he was born to die.And then to stop the United States of yelling for a trial,Two brothers they confessed that they had killed poor Emmett Till.But on the jury there were men who helped the brothers commit this awful crime,And so this trial was a mockery, but nobody seemed to mind.

The Death of Emmett Tillby Bob Dylan
the death of emmett till by bob dylan1
I saw the morning papers but I could not bear to seeThe smiling brothers walkin' down the courthouse stairs.For the jury found them innocent and the brothers they went free,While Emmett's body still floats the foam of a Jim Crow southern sea.If you can't speak out against this kind of thing, a crime that's so unjust,Your eyes are filled with dead men's dirt, your mind is filled with dust.Your arms and legs they must be in shackles and chains, and your blood it must cease to flow,For you let this human race fall down so God-awful low!

This song is just a reminder to remind your fellow manthat this kind of thing still lives today in that ghost-robed Ku Klux Klan.But if all of us folks that thinks alike, if we give all we could give,We could make this great land of ours a greater place to live.

The Death of Emmett Tillby Bob Dylan
rosa parks december 1955
Rosa ParksDecember 1955

The Montgomery black community launches a bus boycott until the buses are desegregated in December of 1956

**Known as the Montgomery

Bus Boycott**

montgomery bus boycott ends dec 21 1956
Montgomery Bus BoycottEnds Dec 21, 1956

FACTS

  • Hope was to put the bus companies out of business
  • Boycotters harassed by white employers and police officers

RESULT

Brought civil rights to the national level

montgomery improvement association mia 1955
Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) 1955

MIA, led by MLK, sued the Montgomery bus system and the Supreme Court declared that segregation on buses was unconstitutional

MLK being arrested for speeding during Montgomery Bus Boycott

southern christian leadership conference sclc 1956
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) 1956

FACTS

  • Major force in organizing the civil rights movement
  • MLK was inspired by Gandhi and his belief in “non-violence”

“We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline” MLK

Martin Luther King, Jr.

1st President of SCLC

little rock nine
Little Rock Nine

Little Rock 9

1957

little rock nine september 2 1957
Little Rock NineSeptember 2, 1957

FACTS

  • - Gov. Faubus announced he’s “not responsible for any violence”
  • Faubus called in the National Guard to prevent the black students from entering the school

RESULT

A new court order forced Faubus to withdraw the Arkansas National Guard.

little rock nine september 23 1957 first day of school
Little Rock Nine: September 23, 1957 “First day of school…..”

1,000 police “escorted” students to class

slide23
“White students yelled insults in the halls and during class. They beat up the black students, particularly the boys. They walked on the heels of the blacks until they bled. They destroyed the black students' lockers and threw flaming paper wads at them in the bathrooms. They threw lighted sticks of dynamite at Melba Pattillo Beals, stabbed her, and sprayed acid in her eyes. The acid was so strong that had her 101st guard not splashed water on her face immediately, she would have been blind for the rest of her life.  White students protested the nine being in the school, some by leaving.”
little rock nine september 1957
Little Rock NineSeptember 1957

FACTS

  • Students escorted out of the building by noon that day
  • President Eisenhower sent over 1,000 troops from the 101st Airborne Division in to “protect” the black students

RESULT

  • Became a confrontation of state authority vs. national government

**Eisenhower was 1st President since Reconstruction to use armed forces to support the rights of black citizens**

Dwight D. Eisenhower

sit ins
Sit-ins
  • “Civil Disobedience”
  • Blacks & whites sat at “white” lunch counters until arrested
  • Done all over the South
16 th street church bombing 1963
16th Street Church Bombing 1963
  • KKK bomb killed 4 girls, injured 20

• Largest black

church in city

• Took 14+ years to

convict killers

birmingham 19631
Birmingham 1963
  • Protest over bombing, discrimination
  • “Bull” Connor was police chief, wanted to display his power
  • When protesters gathered, he had the police turn fire hoses and dogs on them
malcolm x
Malcolm X
  • Born Malcolm Little, changed name when he joined Nation of Islam
  • Favored racial separation
  • Engaging speaker
  • Unpopular among whites
  • Spoke of fighting back
  • Jailed, persecuted, bombed
  • Reached young, urban blacks
  • Assassinated 2/21/1965
martin luther king jr
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Baptist Minister
  • Used Gandhi’s non-violence
  • Most famous leader of civil rights movement
  • Engaging speaker
  • Wanted integration
  • Popular among whites, too
  • Jailed, persecuted, bombed
  • “I have a Dream” speech
  • Assassinated 4/4/1968
civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Prohibited discrimination in:
    • Voting
    • Public accommodations – railroads, buses, hotels, etc.
    • Education
voting rights act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Federal gov’t could register voters
  • No more tests
race riots
Race Riots
  • In big cities
  • Reasons:
    • police brutality
    • economic inequality
    • lack of affordable housing
    • discrimination
riots after death of mlk
Riots AfterDeath of MLK
  • Huge loss for black community
  • White violence
change in movement
Change in Movement
  • More radical
  • Black Power
  • Black Panthers
results of movement
Results of Movement
  • African Americans elected
  • Supreme Court justices
  • More professionals
  • Still discrimination in pay, hiring, promotions, etc.
  • Affirmative Action
women s rights movement
Women’s Rights Movement
  • Want equal jobs, pay, and education
  • NOW (National Organization for Women)
latinos rights
Latinos Rights
  • Migrant workers
  • César Chávez formed United Farm Workers
  • Worked for wages, vote
  • Bilingual ballots