BIOL1040 Environmental Science Introductions
BIOL1040 Environmental Science http://people.nnu.edu/jocossel/BIOL1040/BIOL1040_index_2012.htm
Environmental science is a study of connections in nature • Environment… • Science… • Ecology… • Environmentalism…
Sustainability has certain key components • Life depends on ________________, ________________and ______________. • Many human activities can degrade natural capital. • Solutions are being found and implemented. • Sustainability begins at personal and local levels.
Natural Capital Solar energy Natural Capital = Natural Resources + Natural Services Air Renewable energy (sun, wind, water flows) Air purification Climate control UV protection (ozone layer) Life (biodiversity) Population control Water Water purification Pest control Waste treatment Soil Land Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand) Food production Soil renewal Natural gas Nutrient recycling Oil Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels) Coal seam Natural resources Natural services Fig. 1-3, p. 9
Organic matter in animals Dead organic matter Organic matter in plants Decomposition Inorganic matter in soil Fig. 1-4, p. 10
Some resources are renewable and some are not • Humans depend on resources to meet our needs. • A perpetual resource is … • A renewable resource is … • Sustainable yield is …
Some resources are renewable and some are not • Some resources are not renewable. • Nonrenewable resources exist in fixed quantities. • Sustainable solutions: 3Rs
Rich and poor countries have different environmental impacts • Developed countries include the high income ones • e.g. • Developing countries include the low income ones • e.g.
We are living unsustainably • Environmental, or natural capital, degradation is occurring. • We have solutions to these problems that can be implemented.
Natural Capital Degradation Degradation of Normally Renewable Natural Resources Climate change Shrinking forests Decreased wildlife habitats Air pollution Species extinction Soil erosion Water pollution Declining ocean fisheries Aquifer depletion Fig. 1-5, p. 11
Pollution comes from a number of sources • Point sources are … • Nonpoint sources are … • We can ____________ or ____________. • Which is “better”? Why?
The tragedy of the commons: overexploiting shared renewable resources • In 1968, the biologist Garrett Hardin called the degradation of openly shared resources the tragedy of the commons. • Reducing degradation. • Reduce use by government regulations. • Shift to private ownership.
Ecological footprints: our environmental impacts • Ecological footprint is … • Per capita ecological footprint is …
Ecological footprints: our environmental impacts • Ecological deficit means the ecological footprint is ________ than the biological capacity to replenish resources and absorb wastes and pollution. • Humanity is living ________________. • Footprints can also be expressed as …
Total Ecological Footprint (million hectares) and Share of Global Biological Capacity (%) Per Capita Ecological Footprint (hectares per person) United States United States 2,810 (25%) 9.7 European Union 2,160 (19%) European Union 4.7 China China 2,050 (18%) 1.6 0.8 India 780 (7%) India Japan Japan 540 (5%) 4.8 2.5 Unsustainable living 2.0 Number of Earths 1.5 Projected footprint 1.0 Ecological footprint 0.5 Sustainable living 0 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Year Fig. 1-8, p. 14
Causes of Environmental Problems Population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Excluding environmental costs from market prices Fig. 1-10, p. 16
The human population is growing exponentially at a rapid rate • Human population is increasing at a fixed percentage so that we are experiencing doubling of larger and larger populations. • Human population in 2009 was about ____ billion. • Based on the current increase rate there will be ____ billion people by 2050. • We can slow population growth.
13 12 11 10 9 ? 8 7 6 Billions of people 5 4 3 Industrial revolution 2 Black Death—the Plague 1 0 2–5 million years 8000 6000 4000 2000 2000 2100 Time B. C. A. D. Hunting and gathering Agricultural revolution Industrial revolution Fig. 1-11, p. 16
Affluence has harmful and beneficial environmental effects • Wealth results in high levels of … • Average American consumes _____ times as much as the average consumer in India. • “Shop-until-you-drop” affluent consumers are afflicted with a disorder called ___________. • Affluence has provided what positives?
Poverty has harmful environmental and health effects • How do you know if you are “poor”? • One in every five people live in extreme poverty (<$ ), and more are susceptible.
Poverty has harmful environmental and health effects • Poverty causes harmful environmental and health effects.
Lack of access to Number of people (% of world's population) Adequate sanitation facilities 2.6 billion (37%) Enough fuel for heating and cooking 2 billion (29%) Electricity 2 billion (29%) Adequate health care 1.1 billion (16%) Adequate housing 1 billion (14%) Enough food for good health 1 billion (14%) Clean drinking water 900 million (13%) Fig. 1-13, p. 18
Prices of goods and services due not include harmful environmental and health costs • ________________ may increase environmental degradation. • There are ways to include harmful costs of goods and services.
People have different views about environmental problems and their solutions • Each individual has their own environmental worldview— • Environmental ethics are … • ______________________________ holds that we are separate from and in charge of nature.
People have different views about environmental problems and their solutions • _____________________ holds that we can and should manage the earth for our benefit, but that we have an ethical responsibility to be caring and responsible managers. • ______________________ holds that we are part of, and dependent on, nature and that nature exists for all species, not just for us.
What is an environmentally sustainable society? • Environmentally sustainable societies protect natural capital and live off its income. • We can work together to solve environmental problems.