AQUACULTURE REGULATIONS & POLICIES FOR THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON LAND AND MINERAL RESOURCES MEETING. PRESENTATION OUTLINE. History of marine and freshwater aquaculture regulation in South Africa Current regulatory environment for aquaculture in South Africa
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History of marine and freshwater aquaculture regulation in South Africa
Current regulatory environment for aquaculture in South Africa
Interventions to create an enabling regulatory environment
Progress, achievements and challenges
Enablers to accelerate the creation of an enabling environment
The former Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) was the mandated government department for the regulation and management of the marine aquaculture sub-sector.
The Policy for the development of a Sustainable Marine Aquaculture Sector in South Africa gazetted (Notice 1109 of 2007) on 7 September 2007.
The granting of long term (15 years) Marine Aquaculture Rights and the issuing of annual permits is provided for in the Marine Living Resources Act, 1998 (Act No.18 of 1998).
The former Department of Agriculture (DoA) was the mandated government department for the regulation and management of the freshwater aquaculture sub-sector along with Provincial competent authorities, mostly the Provincial Departments of Agriculture (PDA).
On 3 November 2006, the policy for the development of a sustainable freshwater aquaculture sector in South Africa was gazetted (Notice 1519 of 2006).
The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) is now the mandated department responsible for both marine and freshwater aquaculture in South Africa. The constraint is that DAFF does not, as yet, have an enabling legislation to regulate freshwater aquaculture. DAFF administers the Marine Living Resources Act, 1998 in order to regulate, amongst other activities, marine aquaculture.
The sector is currently governed by numerous pieces of legislation and policies, and administered by several different organs of state. There is a general perception that the legal framework is hampering development of the sector. Overregulation, an uncoordinated institutional framework and a segregated authorisations process are some of the problems that have been identified.
The development of the aquaculture sector was identified as a government priority and was included in the government’s Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) (2010-2013). The IPAP identified the need for a National Aquaculture Strategy.
Marine Living Resources Act, 1998 (Act No. 18 of 1998)
The National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act No. 107 of 1998)
The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act No. 10 of 2004)
The National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, 2003 (Act No. 10 of 2003)
National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act, 2008 (Act No. 24 of 2008)
National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008 (Act No. 59 of 2008)
The Sea Birds and Seals Protection Act, 1973 (Act No. 46 of 1973)
The Health Act, 1977 (Act No. 63 of 1977)
The National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications Act, 2008
Standards Act, 2008 (Act No. 8 of 2008)
The Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 (Act No. 54 of 1972)
Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act, 1947 (Act No. 36 of 1947)
Medicines and Related Substances Act, 1965 (Act No. 101 of 1965)
The Animal Health Act, 2002 (Act No. 7 of 2002)
D:SAM (Sustainable Aquaculture Management); D:ATS (Aquaculture Technical Services); CD:AED (Aquaculture and Economic Development); D:ARD (Aquaculture Research and Development)
The Department engaged in a consultative process of developing a National Aquaculture Strategic Framework (NASF) in 2011, and the Strategy was approved in 2012. One of the elements of the Strategy was the development of an integrated National Aquaculture Policy Framework which was accordingly developed and approved in 2013; the Aquaculture Research and Technology Development Programme, approved in 2012 and the development of an Aquatic Animal Health Strategic Framework, approved in 2013.
Review of all pieces of domestic legislation governing aquaculture was undertaken and completed in 2013 with one of the recommendations being the need for the development of a dedicated Aquaculture Act. DAFF is in the process of appointing a service provider for a period of 24 months to draft an Aquaculture Bill.
A Concept Document for the development of Aquaculture Development Zones (ADZs) had been developed.
A Study on the Public Understanding of Aquaculture had been commissioned by DAFF through Food & Agriculture Organization funding and completed. 85% of middle income is unaware of aquaculture. South African per capita consumption of fish is 8kg against 19kg global average.
DAFF will soon start the development of Inland Fisheries Policy in order to build a sustainable inland fisheries sector on the basis upon which Freshwater Aquaculture can also flourish.
EIA Guidelines for Aquaculture in South Africa were developed and published by DEA in consultation with DAFF.
DAFF commissioned a Biodversity Risk and Benefit Assessment study on the appropriateness of farming with seven alien and invasive species in South Africa.
DAFF has entered into an Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications (NRCS) in order for the latter to render certification services for fish and fisheries products destined for international markets.
DAFF has MoUs with eight South African universities in order to promote and advance aquaculture research and development work in line with the objectives of NASF.
DAFF and Department of Environmental Affairs collaborate on the development of Abalone and Trout Norms and Standards.
DAFF had been engaged on ongoing discussions with DEA and the industry, providing input and facilitating the amendment of Alien Invasive Species Regulations that will soon be gazetted by DEA. Consultative workshops have been held with the Tilapia Association, Trout Association and the Bivalve ( Mussels and Oysters) Association.
DAFF has established a National Aquaculture Intergovernmental Forum (AIF) consisting of key national departments (e.g. the dti, EDD DEA, DoH, DST and DWS) and DAFF chairs the quarterly AIF meetings.
DAFF also established a Provincial Aquaculture Intergovernmental Forum (PAIF) that is made up of Provincial Departments of Agriculture (PDAs) and Provincial Departments of Economic Development and DAFF chairs the PAIF biannual meetings which are held in different provinces. DAFF has held meetings with all the PDA HoDs to engage them on DAFF’s Strategic Plans, particularly the objectives of NASF and the need for the development of Provincial Aquaculture Strategies aligned with the NASF with support from DAFF.
DAFF along with Aquaculture South Africa is chairing the Aquaculture Value Chain Round Table committee that meets three times per annum to engage all sector stakeholders on aquaculture issues concerning the entire value chain.
DAFF has received two positive Environmental Authorisations with regard to two ADZs under development, i.e. Qolora ADZ (26.4 ha) for land-based farming with abalone, finfish and seaweed; and Algoa Bay ADZ (285ha) for sea-based finfish (yellow tail) cage farming. Delays have been experienced with the finalisation and decision making with regard to the Algoa Bay ADZ, but these were overcome due to improved cooperative governance attributed to the existing intergovernmental forums mentioned above (e.g. AIF and PAIF).
Need to recruit qualified Veterinary Science Graduates for further aquatic animal health training in order to be appointed as State Vets dedicated to the Aquaculture Sector
Need adequately trained Extension Service personnel to service the sector.
Aquaculture Research and Development
Need to ensure cohesion and focus in terms of research interventions through the establishment of well resourced Aquaculture Research and Technology Demonstration Centres.
Need to conduct more research on candidate aquaculture species and disseminate information to all stakeholders.
Education, Training and Awareness
Need for Aquaculture to be introduced in the curriculum (both undergraduate and post-graduate) in more tertiary institutions of South Africa.
Operation Phakisa “Unlocking the economic potential of South Africa’s Oceans”
The Cabinetacknowledged the economic potential of aquaculture and included it as one of the three key economic sectors under Operation Phakisa. The other sectors included under Operation Phakisaare Marine Transport and Manufacturing Offshore Oil and Gas.
QUICK GLANCE EnvironmentThe Aquaculture lab worked for 6 weeks to identify issues, develop solutions and action plans
Development of solutions
Detailed implementation plans with timelines
Detailed supporting budgets and KPIs to implementation plans
Documentation of lab efforts and outputs
SOURCE: Aquaculture Lab
HEADLINES 2019: SA economy reaps the rewards of Operation Phakisa
“…The Aquaculture sector in South Africa now employs 15,000 people in direct and full time jobs….. “
“Jobs in Aquaculture sector seen as quality jobs, improving livelihoods in rural communities….”
“…to Aquaculture in South African has shown strong growth in 5 years, withproduction from 2014 up 5 fold to 20,000 tonnes…”
“…experts estimate the revenue contributed by Aquacultureto South Africa’s economy to be as much as R 3 Bn…”
““…exciting momentum built in Operation Phakisa evidenced by Aquaculture’s inclusive growth…”
SOURCE: Aquaculture Lab
“... The way the banks price risk is crazy… few people really understand the nature of our business…”
Inefficient regulation and governance systems
Difficulty in accessing financing
Under-representation in the sector
“…We don’t have the economies of scale to be commercially viable …
“…PDIs only make up less than 10% of the sector…”
“…It’s taken 28 months to get a single permit to expand my farm…”
Limited market footprint
Small pool of skills
“…I lost all my fish since there was no fish vet…”
“…we should be supplying salmon and trout instead of importing 1000s of tonnes…”
“…High set-up costs are a huge barrier to entry in this sector…”
Rural infrastructure underdeveloped
Fragmented research and development
Challenge in sourcing quality input s
“…our R&D should focus on meeting market demand in South Africa…”
“…We don’t have the economies of scale to get quality feed from suppliers…”
SOURCE: Aquaculture Lab
Selection and Implementation of Projects (24)
Globally recognised monitoring and certification system
Inter-Departmental Authorisations Committee
Aquaculture Development Fund
Capacity building for support services
Coordinated industry-wide marketing efforts
SOURCE: Aquaculture Lab
Hatchery expansion- Paternoster- Oyster
Expansion- East London IDZ- Kob
Expansion- Hamburg cluster- Oyster
Expansion - Jacobsbaai Sea Products
Expansion - Abagold
Expansion - HIK Abalone
New - Amatikulu - Kob
Expansion - Amatikulu - Ornamentals
Expansion - DST Abalone Hatchery
New- Hamburg cluster- Kob
New- Saldanha Viking Cages- Trout
Doring Bay Abalone
New - Saldanha Viking Cages - Salmon
Expansion- Saldanha Blue Ocean Mussels- Mussel
Expansion- Saldanha Bay Oyster Company- Oyster
New- Saldanha Southern Atlantic Sea Cages- Salmon
New- Algoa Bay Sea Cage Farming- Yellowtail
New- Richards Bay Sea Cage Farming- Dusky Kob
New- Diamond Coast Abalone Ranching- Abalone
New - Van der Kloof - Trout
New - Matzikama Brenner Dietrichs - Abalone
New - Buffeljachts - Abalone
SOURCE: Aquaculture Lab