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Inhabitants of UNDERC. Biological Hierarchy. Diversity, Interactions. Communities. Demography. Populations. Behavior. Individuals. Individual Organisms: Behavior. Variety of topics Feeding Fighting Fornicating Habitat selection Home range and territoriality. Sexual selection

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Inhabitants of UNDERC

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biological hierarchy
Biological Hierarchy

Diversity, Interactions






individual organisms behavior
Individual Organisms: Behavior
  • Variety of topics
    • Feeding
    • Fighting
    • Fornicating
  • Habitat selection
  • Home range and territoriality
  • Sexual selection
    • Competition for mates
    • Mate choice
population ecology
Population Ecology
  • Demography
    • Births & deaths
    • Reproduction
    • Mortality
  • Population growth models
    • Exponential growth
      • r  intrinsic rate of natural increase
    • Logistic growth
      • K  carrying capacity
  • Life history strategies
  • r vs. K selection
    • r selection
      • Many low quality offspring
      • “boom & bust” populations
      • Short lifespan
      • Highly productive
    • K selection
      • Few high quality offspring
      • Populations fairly constant
      • Long lifespan
      • Highly efficient
    • Continuum
community ecology
Community Ecology
  • Interactions between species
    • Competition
    • Predation
    • Parasitism
    • Mutualism
  • Species diversity
    • Species richness
    • Evenness
  • Patterns in species diversity
    • Theory of Island Biogeography
    • View some habitats as islands
    • Predict number of species
      • Patch size
      • Isolation from other patches
  • Invertebrate vs. Insect
  • Entomology
Phylum Arthropoda

Class Crustacea

Amphipoda, Isopods, fairy shrimp, Decopods (lobster)

Class Diplopoda


Class Arachnida

Scorpions, mites, ticks, spiders

Class Insecta

Order Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Plecoptera…

insect general info
Insect general info
  • 840,000 insects; ~104,000 in North America
  • Correct identification based on multiple characteristics:
    • General appearance (size, shape, color)
    • Form of body parts (antennae, legs, wings, bristles, etc.)
    • Location (habitat type, region)
    • Age (larva vs. adult)
  • Usually requires use of hand lens or dissecting scope to see pertinent features
insect diversity
Insect Diversity
  • Diptera: flies
  • Coleoptera: beetles
  • Lepidoptera: butterflies & moths
  • Hymenoptera: bees & wasps
  • Odonata: dragonflies
  • Neuroptera: lacewings
  • Orthoptera: grasshoppers & crickets
  • Ephemeroptera: mayflies
why are insects so diverse
Why are insects so diverse?
  • Small body size
    • Allows separation of populations
    • Allows subdivision of resources
  • Short generation times (r-selection)
    • Allows quick response to environmental heterogeneity
    • Allows quick recovery from disturbance
  • Long history






Diptera (Tipulidae)

insect ecology module
Insect Ecology Module
  • Dr. Jessica Hellmann
  • Patterns of moth diversity
    • Island biogeography
    • Blacklighting
  • Distribution and abundance of an insect herbivore
    • Leaf miners
    • Abiotic and biotic factors
phylum chordata
Phylum Chordata
  • Several classes of fish
    • Jawless fishes
    • Sharks and rays
    • Bony fish
  • Class Amphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders)
  • Class Testudines (turtles, tortoises)
  • Class Lepidosauromorpha (snakes, lizards)
  • Class Crocodilia (alligators, crocodiles)
  • Class Aves (birds)
  • Class Mammalia (mammals)
class amphibia
Two stage life cycle

Aquatic larvae

Terrestrial adult

Respiratory structures

Gills (larvae)

Lungs (adult)


Mucous and poison skin glands

Three-chambered heart



Must lay eggs in or near water

Major groups




Frogs and toads

Class Amphibia
Shelled amniotic egg

Skin hard and brittle

Many have bony plates under scales

Three-chambered heart


Major groups



herp traps
Herp Traps
  • Pitfall traps
    • Useful for catching terrestrial arthropods and small mammals
    • Usually include drift fence to increase capture rate
herpetology module
Herpetology Module
  • Dr. Sunny Boyd
  • Lectures on ecology and phylogeny of herps
  • Field exercises
    • Collection of herps from UNDERC lakes and vernal ponds
    • Study of mating calls of frogs
    • Study of tadpole abundance and diversity
class aves
Class Aves
  • Many orders of birds
    • Columbiformes: doves and pigeons
    • Falconiformes: diurnal birds of prey
    • Apodiformes: hummingbirds
    • Gruiformes: cranes and rails
    • Piciformes: woodpeckers
    • Strigiformes: owls
    • Anseriformes: ducks and geese
    • Galliformes: chickens and turkeys
    • Passeriformes: perching birds
class mammalia
Many orders of mammals

Rodentia: rodents

Chiroptera: bats

Soricomorpha: shrews and moles

Carnivora: cats, dogs, bears, weasels, raccoons

Lagomorpha: rabbits

Artiodactyla: ungulates

Class Mammalia
mammal traps
Mammal Traps

Tomahawk traps

Sherman traps

Leg-hold traps

noninvasive techniques
Noninvasive Techniques

Scent Stations

Bat Detectors

Trailmaster Cameras


Tracking Stations

ornithology mammalogy module
Ornithology/Mammalogy Module
  • Lectures on ecology and conservation of birds and mammals
  • Field exercises
    • Exciting morning exercies (birding, mammal trapping)
    • Fun night exercises (howl surveys, owling)
    • Radio telemetry
  • Class projects
    • Bird diversity
    • Small mammal foraging behavior