First Inhabitants Human Cultures in North America
Terms to Know • Archaeology • Artifacts • Culture • Horticulture • Palisade • Tribe • Clovis Point • Atlatl • Nomadic
North America12,000 years ago • The last Ice Age occurred. • A land bridge existed between Asia and North America (Beringia). • Georgia’s coast line was a hundred miles east of today’s coast.
Paleo Indians • First human beings in Georgia • Evidence shows they were here 13,250 years ago. • They were Nomadic people who followed the herds. • Hunter-gatherers - large animals (mammoths, bison), fish ,wild plants. • Used large spears with stone tips called Clovis points (artifacts). • Warm climates caused extinction of many large animals during Paleo period. • No Paleo sites have been found in Georgia
Clovis Point • Used on the end of a long heavy spear. • It was used for stabbing, not throwing.
Archaic People • 8,000 BC – 1,000 BC (old) • Nomadic • Improved hunting (small animals) • Created hooks and nets for fishing. • Began trading with other groups. • Atlatl, smaller spear points, stone tools, grooved axe, & pottery • This is the prehistoric period in which horticulture began.
Atlatl • A spear thrower- a tool that uses leverage to achieve a further throw.
LH Page 12 Create a Double Bubble Map Archaic and Paleo
Woodland Indians • 1,000 BC – 1,000 AD • Permanent villages (protective walls) along stream valleys (moist soils) • Farming (sunflowers, squash, beans) and improved hunting techniques • Bow and arrow replaced spear, new pottery methods (artifacts) • Traded with other tribes • Ceremonial burial mounds (Kolomoki, Rock Eagle) • Mounds, Plants, and Fortified towns are developments of the Woodland Indians.
Located near Eatonton,GA. Excavations found the remains of one person and a small spear point. Rock Eagle Effigy
MississippianCulture • 800 AD – 1600 AD • Civilization with organized towns and cities. • Extensive agriculture grew corn, squash, beans – aka: “Three sisters”. • Trade with groups as far away as Mexico. • Mound building for religious purposes, burial, and public business • Macon, Floyd Co. , & Stewart Co. • Society created with hierarchies (levels of importance). • Stone axes, bowls, painted pottery
The EndOvercrowding, lack of sanitation, and exposure to European diseases (tuberculosis) brought an end to the Mississippian Culture by early 1600s.