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Atypical Visual Processing in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Karen Dobkins Leslie Carver Joseph McCleery. Psychology Department University of California, San Diego. Funded by NAAR / Autism Speaks. & the M.I.N.D. Institute (UC Davis). TWO TYPE OF TESTS.

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Atypical Visual Processing in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)


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slide1

Atypical Visual Processing in Infant Siblings of Children with

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Karen Dobkins

Leslie Carver

Joseph McCleery

Psychology Department

University of California, San Diego

Funded by NAAR / Autism Speaks

& the M.I.N.D. Institute (UC Davis)

slide2

TWO TYPE OF TESTS

COGNITIVE/BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS

(6 - 36 months)

Ages and Stages Questionnaire, MacArthur-Bates Communicative

Development Inventory (CDI), Mullen Scales of Early Learning

ASD Screening/Diagnogstics: M-CHAT, PDDST, ADOS, ADI

2) EXPERIMENTAL MEASURES

A) Low-Level Visual Processing: 6 months

A) Low-Level Visual Processing: 6 months

B) Face Processing: 10 months

B) Face Processing: 10 months

C) Social Referencing: 18 months

TWO ANALYSES:

1) ASD analysis: High-Risk, Affected vs. Unaffected

2) Endophenotype analysis: High-Risk vs. Controls

2) Endophenotype analysis: High-Risk vs. Controls

slide3

FACES

OBJECTS

OBJECTS

1) FACE PROCESSING PARADIGM:

- Faces vs. Objects

- Event Related Potentials (ERPs)

Adults: Bentin et al., 1996.

Infants: de Haan et al, 2002, Halit, et al, 2003, 2004; de Haan & Nelson, 1999

slide4

Amplitude

(microvolts)

-

-

Occipito-temporal cortex

Face Component: N170

Averaged electrical response time-locked to repeated

picture presentations

slide5

*

Difference Scores

N170 Latency (msec)

Face

Advantage

N170 Latency Difference

(Objects - Faces)

F

N170 Latency (msec)

0

0

N = 14

Object

Advantage

F

N = 9

N = 14

N = 9

Study of Adults with ASD

N170 Latency (msec)

McPartland, Dawson, Webb, Panagiotides, Carver (2004)

slide6

10-month-olds

High-Risk Infants

Vs.

Low-Risk Control Infants

EEG Sensor Net

Fast Application

124 Electrodes

Electrical Geodesics, Inc.

slide7

Subjects

10 High-Risk infants

Diagnosis of Their Older Sibling:

- 5 Autistic Disorder

- 1 Aspergers Syndrome

- 4 PDD-NOS

Controls:

20 Low-Risk infants

Two Groups Matched:

- gender, age, number of days born pre/post due date

  • overall cognitive development
  • Ages and Stages Questionnaire, MacArthur-Bates Communicative
  • Development Inventory (CDI), Mullen Scales of Early Learning
slide8

CCTV Camera

Testing Set-up

Speakers

Stimulus Monitor

slide9

In adults: N170

In infants: N290 + P400

P400

N290

N170

Amplitude

(microvolts)

-

-

slide10

N290

* p = 0.003

* p = 0.038

Face

Advantage

Mean Latency Difference (msec)

(Objects - Faces)

Mean Latency Difference (msec)

(Objects - Faces)

Object

Advantage

Controls (n = 20)

High-Risk(n = 10)

Latency Differences

(Objects - Faces)

P400

slide11

Let me know if you want to see:

1) RAW Latency Data for P400 and N290

2) Group difference for

Amplitude of P400 and N290

3) Group differences in the effects of

Familiarity

slide12

Our results in High-Risk 10-month-olds look like

results from previous studies:

Adults with ASD: McPartland et al. (2004)

2) Toddlers (3-4 yrs) with ASD: Webb et al. (2006)

3) Parents of Children w/ ASD: Dawson et al. (2005)

slide13

2) LOW-LEVEL VISUAL PROCESSING PARADIGM:

- Subcortical Magnocellular (M) vs.

Parvocellular (P) Pathway Processing

- Visual Psychophysics

- 6-month-olds

A test of the hypothesis that atypicalities in face

processing in ASD arise from abnormal

development of the subcortical face processing

pathway, i.e., the “amygdala” pathway

(Schultz, 2005)

….. which originates in the M pathway

slide14

MAGNO = Luminance

(Light/Dark)

PARVO = Chromatic

(Red/Green)

slide18

Subjects

13 High-Risk infants

Diagnosis of Their Older Sibling:

- 6 Autistic Disorder

- 1 Aspergers Syndrome

- 6 PDD-NOS

Controls:

26 Low-Risk infants

Two Groups Matched:

- gender, age, number of days born pre/post due date

  • overall cognitive development
slide19

* p = 0.011

* p = 0.011

Log Difference Score

(Lum - Chr)

Log Contrast Sensitivity

Controls (n = 26)

High-Risk(n = 13)

Magnocellular vs. Parvocellular Pathway Processing in 6 month olds

slide21

* p = 0.011

Log Difference Score

(Lum - Chr)

Log Contrast Sensitivity

Controls (n = 26)

High-Risk(n = 13)

Magnocellular vs. Parvocellular Pathway Processing

slide23

Adults with ASD

McPartland et al (2004)

N170

3-4 year olds with ASD

Webb et al (2006)

N290

Parents of ASD

Dawson et al (2005)

N170

Latency Difference

10-month-old Infants

P400

10-month-old Infants

N290

Face

Advantage

Latency Difference (msec)

(Objects - Faces)

Latency Difference (msec)

(Objects - Faces)

Object

Advantage

slide24

P400

N290

Latency Difference

Latency Difference

* p = 0.004

*

p = 0.047

P400 Latency (msec)

N290 Latency (msec)

O

F

O

F

F

F

O

O

Controls (n = 20)

High-Risk(n = 10)

slide25

Amplitude Differences

(Faces - Objects)

P400

N290

* p = 0.021

* p = 0.035

Face

Advantage

Mean Amplitude Difference

(Faces - Objects)

Mean Amplitude Difference

(Faces - Objects)

Object

Advantage

Controls (n = 20)

High-Risk(n = 10)

Very similar to children with ASD

(Webb et al., 2006)

slide26

Familiarity Effects (N290)

(Unfamiliar - Familiar)

* MS

Controls (n = 20)

High-Risk(n = 10)

Familiar

Advantage

Mean Latency Difference

(Unfamiliar - Familiar)

Unfamiliar

Advantage

slide27

3-4 year olds with ASD Webb et al (2006)

Face

Advantage

Latency Difference

(Objects - Faces)

Object

Advantage

Parents of Children with ASD Dawson et al (2005)

Face

Advantage

Latency Difference

(Objects - Faces)

Object

Advantage

Adults with ASD

McPartland et al (2004)

Face

Advantage

Latency Difference

(Objects - Faces)

Object

Advantage

60% scale

slide28

Stimuli

FACES

Familiar (mother)

Unfamiliar (stranger)

OBJECTS

Familiar (favorite toy)

Unfamiliar (novel toy)

TODAY’S TALK:

Data averaged over Familiar and Unfamiliar

Data averaged over Right and Left Hemispheres

slide29

Single Trial Timeline

Baseline

(100 ms)

Post-Stimulus

(700 ms)

Stimulus

(500 ms)

-100

0

1200 ms

500 ms

Data Recording

Continuous EEG, 250 Hz sampling

Impedance: 80 kOhms

0.1 - 100 Hz bandpass filter

Cz reference

slide30

Data Analysis

40 Hz low-pass filter

Automated artifact rejection and

individual trial inspection

Data average over Occipito-Temporal

electrodes (16 channels)

TODAY’S TALK:

Data averaged over RH and LH

Replace up to 10 channels

slide31

Log(POSpost/NEGpost) -

Log(POSpre/NEGpre)

POS Toy

Advantage

P500 Latency Difference

POS - NEG Toy (msec)

Mean # References

NEG Toy

Advantage

Controls (n = 23)

High-Risk(n = 21)

3) SOCIAL REFERENCING PARADIGM:

- Behavior & ERPs

- 18-month-olds