DAPE Autism Spectrum Disorders Audra Wells, M.Ed email@example.com and Tony Hastings, M. Ed firstname.lastname@example.org
What Do We Know? • People with ASD struggle with… • Organization and have a need for structure • Receptive communication • Socialization • Understanding the hidden curriculum • Difficulty with transitions • Rigidity • Strong interests in limited amount of activities or topics
How Can DAPE Help? • Increase gross motor skills • Provide socialization using an organized approach to the activities • Increase the range of interests the student has for leisure activities • Address life long fitness activities
Why Structure????? Because… “Work is play and play is work!!”TEACCH, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Structured Teaching and DAPE • Physical Structure • Mini Schedule • Structured Task
Physical Structure • Refers to the way we set up and organize each area • Clear Physical and Visual Boundaries • Equipment • Tape on the Floor/lines on the floor • Hula-hoop • Rope (divides sections) • Minimize Visual and Auditory Distractions
General Phy-Ed Physical Structure • How does the child know where to sit in a squad in phy-ed? • How does the child know the physical boundaries during a game? • Are the boundaries the same during a stick hockey game as during a basket ball game? • How does the child know which equipment should be used and which should be left alone?
DAPE Classroom • How does the child know where to wait for instructions without verbal prompts? • How does the child know what equipment or tools will be used during his/her session? • How does the child know the boundaries of an activity in the room?
Mini Schedule • A systematic way for the student to receive and understand information. • The mini schedule answers four key questions for the student: • What do I do? • How much do I do? • How will I know when I am finished? • What do I do when I am finished?
Mini Schedule • Bring an element of familiarity and predictability to all different kinds of situations and activities • A routine which can lead to building flexibility (the activities may change, but the systems remain the same) • Teach the “first____, then____concept”
Types of Mini Schedules • Left to Right • Top to Bottom • Matching (colors, letters, numbers…) • Written schedule • Always have a defined way to demonstrate finished
A Structured Activity • The activity should be as visually clear as possible and require little verbal instruction • Answer four key questions • What do I do? • How much do I do? • How will I know I am finished? • What do I do when I am finished?
Creating a work system for DAPE • Using Boxes with a tool or symbol representing the task that is to be completed • Using hula-hoops • A task list on the board
Example1: • Sit-Ups • Towel on floor with a symbol for sit up • Card with the number to be completed (if the child can count) • Clothes pins on a card- when the clothes pins are gone the student is done with the sit-ups
Example 2: • Practice Throwing a ball • Have multiple balls on a line on the floor • Have a target on the wall at the end of the room • Have a box next to the target • Child takes each ball throws at target • Ball goes in finished box. • When all balls are removed from the start line the task is done
Example 3: • Practice catching a ball • The teacher has a start line with multiple balls on the line • The teacher tosses a ball at the student • The student places the ball in the done box when the teacher’s start line is empty the task is finished. Note: I would not do ball throwing and catching tasks back to back. The student may become confused and start thinking the task will never end leading to a meltdown.
How Would You Define Finished? • Volleyball • Floor Hockey • Basketball • Tag • Baseball • Track Activities
How Would We Structure A Game Such As…. • Get into a group of three • Choose an activity • Design how to teach the activity with the principles you have learned: Physical structure, mini schedule, structured task
Resources: • TEACCH, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill