Chapter 8 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Historical Overview • History • Kanner (1943) • Asperger (1944) • Rutter (1966) • Bettelheim (1974) • Neurological Disorders (Current)
Leo Kanner (1943) first described children who had significant impairments in their social functioning and language skills. • In 1944, Viennese physician Hans Asperger described another type of autism within the autism spectrum disorder. One of the distinguishing characteristics of students with Asperger’s syndrome (AS) is an observable developmental imbalance. On the one hand, they can be of average or superior intelligence; on the other, they are years behind in social development. • .
England, Michael Rutter (1996) reported a study that compared children diagnosed as autistic with children who displayed other emotional disorders. He found three characteristics that almost always were present in the children with autism, but only occasionally in children with emotional disorders: (1) failure to develop social relationships, (2) language retardation with impaired comprehension, and (3) ritualistic or compulsive behaviors. • Bettelheim and others believed during the 1960s and 1970s that autism was caused by cold and unfeeling mothers. Currently there is widespread acceptance that autism is a neurophysiological condition
Federal Definition A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction, usually evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movement, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual sensory experiences. Source: http://idea.ed.gov/explore/search/p/,root,regs,300,A,300%252E8
Autism Spectrum Disorder Source: From Lord and Risi, “Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Young Children,” in a. Wetherby & B. Prizant (Eds.), Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2000, p. 12. Reprinted by permission of the publisher, Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, and the author, Catherine Lord, Ph.D.
Autism & PDD Prevalence • Occurs between 2 to 6 per 1000 children. • Autism & PDD 4 times more common in boys than in girls. From NICHCY, 2008.
Etiological Factors • Genetic factors • Environmental factors • Mirror neurons system
Identifying Autism • CHAT • Protodeclarative pointing • Gaze monitoring • Pretend play • www.firstsigns.org
Early Identification and Intervention • Language and social skills development • Critical developmental 18 months to 3 years • Imitation of motor behaviors • Eye gaze to communicate
Characteristics • Lack of Theory of Mind • Hypersensitivity to Sensory Stimuli • Social and communication difficulties • Motor skills difficulties
Programs for Children with ASD • UCLA Young Autism Project • TEACCH • LEAP • Pivotal Response Model
Commonalities AmongTreatment Program • Common curriculum content • Highly supportive and structured teaching environment • Predictability and routine • Functional approach to problem behaviors • Transition between preschool and kindergarten Source (Dawson and Osterling, 1997)
School-Age Programs for Children with ASD • Inclusion-based • IEP - clear goals and objectives • Tiered assignments • Functional behavior assessments • Structured teaching • Technological supports
Social Skills Approaches • Ecological Variations • Collateral skills interventions • Child-specific interventions • Peer-mediated intervention procedures • Comprehensive interventions
Family and Lifespan • Family Issues: • Parents as teachers • Relationship focused (RF) • Sibling considerations • Family Support services • Transition
Profiles Sam and Larry • Characteristics • Similarities • Differences • Strengths and challenges
Profiles Sam and Larry • Strategies • Communication goals • Social Skills training • RTI Tiers • IEP goals - Table 8.3 in text