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BOYS and GIRLS

BOYS and GIRLS

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BOYS and GIRLS

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  1. BOYS and GIRLS Their Differences and How it Effects Discipline and Academic Development Presented by: Michael Nuth School Psychologist

  2. OBJECTIVES • Look at the Evolution of Sex Differences • Discussion of Brain Features • Gender Differences in Brain Development • Effects of Development on Discipline Styles • Effects of Development on Academic Styles • Effects of Development on Affective Styles Sex Differences

  3. Historical Perspective 100,000 years ◊ ◊ ◊ ◊ ◊ ◊ Homo Sapians dominant homid 12,000 -15,000 years Animals Domesticated 12,000 - 10,000 years Cities founded 150-200 years ago-Industrial Revolution 60 - 70 years ago-Mandatory Attendance Laws in all States Present Day Sex Differences

  4. Men’s Roles: Women’s Roles: Role of Men and WomenBefore the Agrarian Culture • Gatherer • Bearer of Children • Nurturer of Children • Instructor to Young Children in the Culture/Society • Hunter • Shepard • Warrior/Protector • Initiator to Manhood • Builder (later) Sex Differences

  5. Men Visual Alertness Auditory Alertness Good Spatial Location Skills Use of Non-Verbal Communication Focus on the Goal Women Auditory Alertness Organizational Skills Good Communication Skills Ability to Control/Express Emotions in Acceptable Manner Focus on the Interaction Between Individuals Skills to be SuccessfulBefore the Agrarian Culture Sex Differences

  6. Physical Differences in the Brain between Males and Females Sex Differences

  7. Outside of the BrainFrontal View of the Hemispheres Caudatenucleus Thalamus Pons Cerebellum Spinal Cord Brain viewed from the front Sex Differences

  8. Structures of the BrainInside of One Hemisphere Thalamus Corpus Callosum Caudate Nucleus Cerebellum Hypothalamus Spinal Cord Sex Differences

  9. Resting States Sex Differences

  10. Functions of the Pituitary Sex Differences

  11. Limbic System and Brain Stem Sex Differences

  12. Mediation through the Thalamus Sex Differences

  13. Chemical Differences in the Brain between Males and Females Sex Differences

  14. Summary of the Main Differences In Brain Organization Sex Differences

  15. Prebirth Developmental Differences in Brain Maturation* *from Boys and Girls Learn Differently (Gurian, 2001) Sex Differences

  16. Toddlers/Preschool Developmental Differences in Brain Maturation* Sex Differences *from Boys and Girls Learn Differently (Gurian, 2001)

  17. Preschool/Kindergarten Developmental Differences in Brain Maturation* *from Boys and Girls Learn Differently (Gurian, 2001) Sex Differences

  18. Grades 1 thru 6 Developmental Differences in Brain Maturation* Sex Differences *from Boys and Girls Learn Differently (Gurian, 2001)

  19. Middle School Developmental Differences in Brain Maturation* *from Boys and Girls Learn Differently (Gurian, 2001) Sex Differences

  20. High School Developmental Differences in Brain Maturation* *from Boys and Girls Learn Differently (Gurian, 2001) Sex Differences

  21. Gender Differences and Aggression “Real men like to fight” Gen. George Patton “ I enjoy hitting people” Bill Romanowski, linebacker Oakland Raiders 2003 “The surface of a girl fight can be as silent and smooth as a marble” Rachel Simmons, 2002 Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls Sex Differences

  22. Gender Differences - Aggression Different meaning for Males and Females; Aggression for males is competition, dominance, creates a focus and challenge: in other words - Aggression is Fun Perception of Pain: Less sensitive to pain: stress induced analgesia Aggression for females is not natural. It affects relationships and does not assist in building or maintaining friendships Perception of Pain: Stress may increase the perception of pain in females; exception pregnancy induced analgesia Sex Differences

  23. Gender Differences - Fighting • Males: • More likely to be Physically Aggressive • Fight is brief , focused • Often return as friends after short period of time • More accepted by peers • Females: • More likely to be Verbally Aggressive • Feelings Last for a long time • More likely to Disrupt friend-ship groups • Physical Aggression is less accepted by peers group Sex Differences

  24. It is better to structure competitiveness than let boys find their own (Dodgeball, Capture the Flag, etc.) Competitive sports - either team or individual sports It’s better than video games Boys who bully: Have few friends Usually act alone Are usually doing poorly in school Don’t know the victims Girls who bully: Have many friends Are highly socially skilled Act in groups to isolate a single girl Are doing well in school Know the girl they are bullying Aggression - Educational Impact Structure Competition Bullying Sex Differences

  25. Discipline • Gender Rule for Positive Discipline: • For girls twelve and under and boys fourteen and under: • Don’t ask. Tell • Use of induction (Helping your child imagine him/herself in the position of the person being harmed) • Works best for girls • Used more by mothers with both sons and daughters • Victim-oriented induction sometimes works with boys (“Would you like it if someone bigger….”) • Use of Power Assertion works best for boys • Short brief correction with appropriate punishment (i.e. Natural Consequences) Sex Differences

  26. Age Related Discipline Techniques • Girls - two through four years • Firm verbal correction or victim-oriented induction • If not successful then time-out immediately (key to time-out is isolation, i.e. room with the door closed, room away from others, etc.) • Rule of thumb - one minute for each year of age • Boys - two through five years • Induction doesn’t work well for this age • Start with verbal correction then straight to time-out • May need to repeat or lengthen time-out ( perhaps doubling time given to a girl) • Mild corporal punishment (one or two spanks) might be appropriate (never in anger) • Girls - four through eight and Boys - five through ten • Use all the techniques used for younger children • Add: Withdrawal of Privileges • Make the withdrawal reasonable; try to think of them before you use them • Do not reverse or negotiate disciplinary actions • Negotiation undermines the ideas that the rules of good behavior are fixed • Negotiation “subverts the process of moral internalization, the process children internalize right and wrong and affirm it on their own” Sex Differences

  27. Age Related Discipline Techniques • Girls - nine through fourteen years • Firm verbal correction or victim-oriented induction and time-out don’t work as well • Behaviors may be the result of the behaviors of girls in her group • Know her group and her position in the group • Keep in contact with the parents in her peer group, Discipline in isolation from the group does not work effectively. • If there is a problem with a peer group find another one for her • Boys - ten through fifteen years • If you used corporal punishment in the past, it no longer works • Modified induction starts to work at this age • Don’t ask “How would you feel if….” Instead ask “what would you do if….” • Boys this age are not in touch with or connected to their feelings as well as girls • Girls - fourteen through eighteen and Boys - fifteen through eighteen • Teenagers consider themselves autonomous • Parents of children’s peers have different acceptances of what is permitted • Therefore: Assert your Authority and Pick your Battles Sex Differences

  28. Risk Taking • Risky or dangerous behavior trigger responses in the autonomic nervous system • Gives males a “pleasurable response” • In risk taking activities males more likely to overestimate their ability; Females more likely to underestimate their ability • In risk taking activities males more likely report feeling exhilarated by simulation of a collision while girls report feeling fearful Sex Differences

  29. Sex, Drugs and Other Risky Behavior • Self Esteem impacts risky behaviors • Sex: • Males: High self-esteem more likely to be sexually active • Less likely to be looking to establish relationship • Less cautious regarding sexual interactions • Sees behavior in the context of status • Sexual and aggressive urge mediated by testosterone • Females: Low self-esteem more likely to be sexually active • More likely looking to establish relationship with high status male • Sexual behavior mediated by hormone oxytocin • Drugs: • Males: involves risk, thrill seeking behavior, more peer response • More likely to get drugs from strangers • Females: involves responding to stress, poor body-image • More likely to get drugs from friends or acquaintances Sex Differences

  30. Addressing Risk-Taking Behavior • For Girls: • Monitor for changes in behavior, both positive and negative • Decrease emphasis on physical image in environment • Increase reinforcements that emphasis personal strengths • Educate with facts (use balanced, unbiased, noncommercial sources of information, i.e. National Library of Medicine) • For Boys: • Monitor for changes in behavior • Emphasis that drugs/sex are prohibited and that there are consequences • Stay involved with your son’s life • Remove regular opportunities for him to be unmonitored/unsupervised “…most fifteen-year old boys are not sensible people. They are fifteen-year old boys.” Leonard Sax, M.D. Why Gender Matters Sex Differences

  31. Academic Achievement • Sequence of brain development is gender specific • Boys - areas involved in targeting and spatial memory mature about four years earlier for boys than girls • Girls - areas involved in language and fine motor skills mature about six years earlier for girls than boys • Full brain maturity is around age thirty “Sex differences in childhood are larger and more important than sex differences in adulthood” Leonard Sax, M.D. Why Gender Matters Sex Differences

  32. Academic Achievement • Relationship with teachers: • Girls - in general are more concerned with pleasing their teachers • Will seek to affiliate with the teacher and give more weight to their opinion • Will generalize the meaning of their failures as indicating that they disappointed adults • Are more likely to do their homework even when not interested • Boys - less likely to seek affiliation with teacher. In secondary grades affiliation looks “geekish” • Tend toview failures as specific to the subject area • Lack of concern with teacher as role model, but source of information • Friendship styles: • Girls - Friendship is face to face • Conversation central to friendships at all ages • “Self-disclosure” is an very important part of friendship • Under stress looks for friends for support • Boys - Friendship is shoulder to shoulder • Usually involve sharing a common interest or activity • Do not share innermost feelings • Under stress usually wants to be left alone Sex Differences

  33. Academic Achievement • Seeking help from teachers: • Girls - sees teacher as an ally and a friend • Will look for conversation regarding the problem (face-to-face) • Therefore, when working with a girl, smile and look her in the eye when you’re helping her with a subject • Boys - will usually seek teacher’s assistance only as a last resort, especially middle and high school • If assistance gives him greater status in another area, may seek help • When working with a boy sit down next to him and spread out the material in front of you, so you can both look at the material together (shoulder-to-shoulder) • Hearing sensitivity: • Girls hear things at lower volumes (decibels) than boys, so male teachers speaking in a normal voice may be seen as “yelling” and female teacher’s normal voice may be to low for a boys threshold Sex Differences

  34. Academic Achievement • Stress Responses: • Girls - moderate stress degrades performance on tests • Inhibits growth of neural connections in the hippocampus • Time constraints increase stress in girls • Boys - moderate stress improves performance on tests • Enhances growth of neural connections in the hippocampus • Fast paced questioning, quick time constraints may energize boys learning Sex Differences

  35. Learning Styles In looking at the learning styles of the persons we teach, we need to be aware of the way we learn because… we more likely teach the easiest way we learn Sex Differences

  36. Boys Deductive Reasoning Start with general principle then apply it Understands related rules as they apply to the general rule Do better on multiple choice tests that you are applying a rule Girls Inductive Reasoning Begin with concrete examples and add to the basic concept Asking “Give me an example” to demonstrate a rule or principle is easier for a girl Learning Style Differences Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Sex Differences

  37. Males Better with abstract material (without seeing or touching) Males do better with math taught on the blackboard Males like abstract arguments and moral debates Females Better with concrete examples used in Using manipulatives and objects to teach math concepts and principles Learning Style Differences Abstract and Concrete Reasoning Sex Differences

  38. Males Males produce less words than females During the learning process males often work silently Often find coded language or jargon more interesting to use Females Produce more words than males During the learning process females use words as they learn Conceptualize things in usable, everyday language Learning Style Differences Use of Language Sex Differences

  39. Males Not as developed listeners Hears less of what is said Need more logical structured sequencing of material Ask for evidence to support claim Females Better listeners Hear more of what is said More receptive to the details contained in a lesson or conversation Less need for sequencing Learning Style Differences Logic and Evidence Sex Differences

  40. Males More likely bored Requires more and varying stimulants to keep them attentive Once bored More likely to give up on learning More likely to act-out in a way to disrupt the classroom Females Less likely bored Better at self-managing their boredom during instruction and other aspects of education Easier to reengage Learning Style Differences Likelihood of Boredom Sex Differences

  41. Males Use more physical space when they learn Especially at younger ages This often makes males appear rude and impolite Females Requires less physical space than males Learning Style Differences Use of Space Sex Differences

  42. Males Need more physical movement Stimulates their brains Manages/relieves impulsive behaviors 60 second movement breaks are helpful Females Requires less physical movement than males Lower serotonin levels and lower metabolism results in little or no fidgetiness Learning Style Differences Movement Sex Differences

  43. Males Tend to focus on performing a task well Not sensitive to emotions of others Pecking order more important Established by size, personality, personal abilities and other social and personal factors More dependent on status as it relates to grades Males at bottom secrete more stress hormone which interferes with learning Females Easier to master the stages of cooperative learning Attend to a code of social interaction Unpopular girls are less likely to experience failure than unpopular boys Less dependent on social status as it affects grades Lower levels of cortisol (stress hormone) allowing for greater focus on intellectual learning compared to emotional and survival pursuits Learning Style Differences Sensitivity and Group Dynamics Cooperative learning is beneficial for all children Sex Differences

  44. Males Rely on pictures for learning In literature discussions focus is more on author’s symbolism and imagery Tend toward coded info like diagrams, graphs and symbolic texts Females Tend to prefer written texts In literature class the focus is more on the emotional workings of a character Learning Style Differences Use of Symbolism Both males and females like pictures. Sex Differences

  45. Males Create structured teams Spend less time managing the team process Pick leaders quickly Focus is on the goal(s) Females Form looser organized group More time on selection of roles in the process The social interaction is as important as the task Learning Style Differences Use of Learning Teams Both males and females benefit from learning teams and group work. Sex Differences

  46. Give boys a chance to choose reading materials. Relating to their interests increases their motivation to achieve better literacy skills. Raise the profile of reading at home. Make assignments authentic with real life applications. Let boys apply knowledge and skills rather than memorizing facts. Involve boys deductive reasoning skills in presentations. Use the blackboard. Boys learn better with games and technology, symbolic text, diagrams and graphs. Stimulate the right hemisphere by providing pictures of new vocabulary or concepts. Clarify more often with boys. Set time limits, with learning targets. Use an overhead timer with the goal written along side of it. Chunk tasks and allow for more break time between crucial learning activities. General Teaching Strategies for Greater Success for Males Sex Differences

  47. Have boys compete against themselves-”beat your prior record” For boys, better learning involves physical, energetic and concrete activities. Use strategies like: Role-play Debates Investigations Manipulating Objects Make clear what the results should look like and give examples of responses that earn “1”, “2” or “3” points. Whenever possible allow boys to choose from a “menu” of reading and writing assignments. General Teaching Strategies for Greater Success for Males (con’t) Sex Differences

  48. Caine, Renate Nummela and Caine, Geoffrey. Education on the edge of possibility. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1997. Dennison, Paul E. and Dennison, Gail E. Brain Gym. Ventura, California: Edu-Kinesthetics. 1989 Gurian, Michael and Henley, Patricia. Boys and girls learn differently! Aguide for teachers and parents. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.2001 Gurian, Michael and Ballew, Arlette. The Boys and Girls Learn Differently Action Guide for Teachers. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. 2004 Hoff Sommers, Christina. The War Against Boys. New York: Touchstone. 2000 Jensen, Eric. Brain compatible strategies. Del Mar, California: Turning Point. 1997. Jensen, Eric. Introduction to brain-compatible learning. San Diego, California: The Brain Store. 1998 Jensen, Eric. Teaching with the brain in mind. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1998 Kindlon, Dan and Thompson, Michael. Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys. New York: Ballantine Books. 2000 Moir, Anne and Jessel, David. Brain Sex. New York: Dell, 1990 Sax, Leonard. Why Gender Matters. New York: Doubleday, 2005 Simmons, Rachel. Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls. New York: Harcourt, 2002 Sousa, David A. How the brain learns. Reston, Virginia: The National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1995 Rogers, Lesley. Sexing the brain. New York: Columbia University Press. 2001 Vernon, Philip A. (ed). The neuropsychology of individual differences. San Diego, California: Academic Press. 1994 Bibliography for Brain-Based Learning Books Sex Differences

  49. Bibliography for Brain-Based Learning and Single Sex Education Websites • www.guysread.com • Education World (then search on Boys Learning Styles) • www.ncedl.org<National Center for Early Development and Learning> • www.nces.ed.gov<Digest of Educational Statistics> • www.nih.gov<National Institute of Health> • www.nimh.gov<National Institute of Mental Health> • www.singlesexschools.org <National Association for Single Sex Public Education> Sex Differences

  50. Bibliography for Education Websites • www.aauw.org<American Association of University Women> • www.graphic.org< The Graphic Organizer> • www.ica-usa.org<ICA Rite of Passage Journeys> • www.thinkingmaps.com<Innovative Learning Group> • www.patnc.org<Parents as Teachers National Centers> • www.score.k12.ca.us<Schools of California Online Resources for Education> • www.ed.gov <U.S. Department of Education> Sex Differences