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Behavior Change: A Positive Approach . Warm-up How do we work with atypical students during tutoring? Early Stage Misbehaviors Challenging Behaviors Antecedents, Consequences, and Sensory Issues Teacher Behavior and Assessment. Sprick’s Disciplinary procedures. Types of misbehaviors

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Behavior Change: A Positive Approach

  • Warm-up

    • How do we work with atypical students during tutoring?

  • Early Stage Misbehaviors

  • Challenging Behaviors

  • Antecedents, Consequences, and Sensory Issues

  • Teacher Behavior and Assessment

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Sprick’s Disciplinary procedures

Types of misbehaviors

I. rules and consequences

II. early stage

III. chronic

II. Early Stage

  • proximity

  • gentle verbal reprimands

  • discussion

  • family contact

  • praise

  • restitution

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Sprick, Garrison, and Howard’s chronic interventions

1. Awareness

2. Ability (Skill deficit v Performance deficit)

3. Attention-seeking

4. Purposeful

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Identifying a behavior

  • Does the behavior differ significantly from classmates?

  • Does it negatively impact learning?

  • Have past efforts to address been unsuccessful?

  • Is it cultural?

  • Is it a safety threat?

  • If it persists, will it result in disciplinary action?

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Severity of Disruptive Behavior

  • Behavior confined to observed student.

  • Behavior disrupts others in immediate area.

  • Behavior disrupts entire class.

  • Behavior disrupts additional classrooms or common areas of school.

  • Behavior causes or threatens to cause injury to student or others.(CECP)

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ABC charting

  • When behaviors go beyond our immediate firefighting skills

  • Determine what actions surround the behavior

  • The goal is to determine the function of the behavior

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Possible Antecedents

  • Transitioned into academic demand

  • Class Participation activity beginning

  • Boredom

  • Teasing / Embarrassment

  • Unstructured activity to begin

  • Success on a task

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Possible consequences

  • Teacher Verbal Reprimand

  • Teacher Verbal Praise

  • Student Verbal Praise

  • Student Non-verbal reprimand

  • Laughter

  • Time-out ????

  • Reduced homework

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Positive Reinforcement

Presentation of a reinforcer (satisfying stimulus) contingent upon a response that results in the strengthening of that response


Presentation of an aversive stimulus upon a response that reduces the rate of that response

Negative Reinforcement

Strengthens a response through the removal of an aversive stimulus contingent upon that response

Response Cost

The removal of a reinforcer contingent upon behavior


Contingencies for reinforcement are removed, thus reducing response

Teacher actions and student responses

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Identifying teacher behavior

  • If I reprimand Michelle and the behavior continues then I may have provided __________.

  • If I provide Rex a gummy bear after he completes his homework and he does not complete his homework the next day, then I may have provided ___________.

  • I remove the title of line leader after a Bobby curses in class and she does not curse the next time she is upset then I may have provided ___________.

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Identifying student behavior

  • Ronne calls out and her classmates laugh. Ronne continues to call out. The classmates may be providing ____________.

  • Pam openly defies the teacher’s request and the students ignore the behavior. Pam stops the behavior. The students may be providing ___________.

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Sensory Regulation

  • Also called homeostasis or arousal modulation

  • Parts

    • Tactile - touch

    • Vestibular – sense of mvmt; body in space; gravity

    • Vision - vision

    • Auditory – hearing

    • Gustatory – taste or possibly oral texture

    • Olfactory - smell

    • Proprioceptive – muscles, tendons, joints

  • A child tries to maintain desired levels or direction of sensation (too low or too high)

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Identifying sensory issues

  • Shore and Iwata called it automatically reinforcing, why?

  • Jarod stands and starts jumping during circle time everyday. What sensory stimulation is he trying to satisfy? Is his level of stimulation usually too low or high?

  • Jacque screams and pushes other students when she is touched by classmates during low level activities in class such as silent reading. What sensory stimulation is she trying to satisfy? Is her level of stimulation usually too low or high?

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Find out your part in student behavior

  • Recording teacher behaviors

  • More next class on assessment of identified behaviors but lets start with ourselves

  • How is your interaction with students important to their learning? How is it important to their engaged performance? How do you know?

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Record your own behaviors

Record what you respond to

Note with whom you are reacting (gender, achievement level)

Are you setting the example?

Are you feeding into the problem?

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Linked to improved outcomes and motivation

Should be specific

Should be saved for mastery or difficult situations

Careful about the “I”

3:1 positive/negative


Process oriented

Specific to action and not the person

Meant to set examples of on-task

Praise v. Encouragement

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  • How do we know when a behavior is challenging enough to address it with a full FBA-BIP?

  • How can an ABC analysis help to identify a behavior?

  • How can an ABC analysis help to determine a function?

  • How can your interactions help students?