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Psychology is the scientific study of. A) Behavior B) the Psyche C) Sex & Aggression D) Mental Processes A) Behavior. Which of the following are the goals of Psychology?. Describe, manipulate, control, and examine behavior Describe, explain, predict, and change behavior

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Psychology is the scientific study of


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    1. Psychology is the scientific study of • A) Behavior • B) the Psyche • C) Sex & Aggression • D) Mental Processes • A) Behavior

    2. Which of the following are the goals of Psychology? • Describe, manipulate, control, and examine behavior • Describe, explain, predict, and change behavior • Predict, control, examine and change behavior • Manipulate, control, explain, and change behavior • B) describe, explain, predict, and change behavior

    3. Applied research is conducted to study • How people apply knowledge in an educational setting • Theoretical questions that may or may not have real-world applications • The goals of psychology • A specific real-world problem • D) A specific real-world problem

    4. A procedure to ensure that each individual has the same probability as any other of being in a given group is called _____. • Random selection • Random assignment • Representative selection • Representative assignment • B. Random assignment

    5. Only the experiment allows one to investigate __________. • Relationships • Correlations • Causation • The goals of psychology • C) Causation

    6. The tendency of experimenters to influence the results of their experiment in an expected direction is called ____. • Experimenter bias • Control bias • Observational bias • Experimental bias • A) Experimenter bias

    7. The experimental group in an experiment is the group in which the participants _____. • Do not receive the independent variable • Receive the dependent variable • Do not receive the DV • Receive the IV • D. Receive the IV

    8. The first step in the scientific method is _____. • Forming a testable hypothesis • Developing a theory • Reviewing the literature of existing theories • Designing a study • C. Reviewing the literature of existing theories

    9. The total of all possible cases from which a sample is selected is called the __________. • A) subject pool • B) population • C) selection group • D) control group • B) population

    10. Freud’s research is not well supported, mostly because he used _______ as a method of study. • A) naturalistic observation • B) case study • C) correlation • D) surveys and questionnaires • B) Case Study

    11. The ______ variable is the variable that is measured. • A) Independent • B) Intervening • C) Controlled • D) Dependent • D) Dependent

    12. A hypothesis is derived from a ______. • A) idea • B) research paper • C) brainstorming • D) theory • D) theory

    13. The three major parts of a neuron are the _______. • glia, dendrites, and myelin • Myelin, dendrites, and axon • Dendrites, axon and soma • Axon, glia and myelin • C) dendrites, axon and soma

    14. The major ions involved in the resting and action potential are ________. • Sodium and hydrogen • Hydrogen and potassium • DNA and RNA • Potassium and sodium • D) Potassium and sodium

    15. Myelin, the fatty insulation surrounding the axon, is required for ___________. • Complex cognitive tasks • Complex motor tasks • Increasing the speed of the action potential • All of these options • C) Increasing the speed of the action potential

    16. The parasympathetic and sympathetic are the major divisions of the __________ nervous system. • Autonomic • Somatic • Central • Automatic • A) Autonomic

    17. The major divisions of the CNS are __________. • A) sympathetic and parasympathetic • B) somatic and autonomic • C) gray matter and white matter • D) brain and spinal cord • D) brain and spinal cord

    18. The frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes make up the ________. • A) brain • B) cerebral cortex • C) subcortex • D) brain stem • B) Cerebral cortex

    19. This structure at the top of the brain stem is involved in respirations, movement, waking, sleep, and dreaming. • Medulla • Pons • Cerebellum • Reticular formation • B. Pons

    20. The __________ system prepares your body to respond to stress. • A) central nervous • B) fight or flight • C) peripheral • D) somatic • B) fight or flight

    21. The _____ serves as the major sensory relay area for the brain. • Hypothalamus • Thalamus • Cortex • Hindbrain • B. Thalamus

    22. The corpus callosum __________. • A) maintains your balance • B) keeps you breathing • C) connects your right and left hemispheres • D) is the center of your personality • C) connects your right and left hemispheres

    23. The limbic system is involved with your __________. • A) ability to move and maintain posture • B) sense of touch and pain • C) basic bodily functions • D) emotional behavior • D) emotional behavior

    24. The __________ is the brain structure most associated with the formation of new memories. • A) hypothalamus • B) thalamus • C) hippocampus • D) pituitary gland • C) hippocampus

    25. ___, ___, ___ are the three major techniques for scanning the brain. • A) PET, CAT, DOG • B) PET, CT, MRI • C) MRI, CAT, FSH • D) CT, MRI, NFL • B) PET, CT, MRI

    26. Spontaneous recovery occurs when _________ suddenly reappears. • A) your lost wallet • B) a previously extinguished response • C) an extinct instinct • D) a forgotten stimulus-response sequence • B) a previously extinguished response

    27. A relatively permanent change in behavior is __________. • Learning • Conditioning • Behavior modification • Modeling • A) Learning

    28. Once classical conditioning has occurred, the CR may be elicited by stimuli that are similar to the CS. This is called _________. • Generalization • Discrimination • Spontaneous conditioning • Replication of the effect • A) Generalization

    29. Higher order conditioning occurs when a(n) _________. • Previously NS elicits a CR • NS is paired with a CS • NS is paried with and UCS • UCR is paired with a CS • B) NS is paired with a previous NS

    30. Anything that causes an increase in a response is a(n) __________. • A) conditioned stimulus • B) reinforcement • C) punishment • D) unconditioned stimulus • B) reinforcement

    31. Anything that causes a decrease in a response is a(n) __________. • A) conditioned stimulus • B) reinforcement • C) punishment • D) unconditioned stimulus • C) punishment

    32. Negative reinforcement and punishment are __________. • A) the same • B) the best ways to learn a new behavior • C) not the same because negative reinforcement increases behavior and punishment decreases behavior • D) not the same, even though they both decrease behavior • C)

    33. The information processing approach is used by _________. • A) humanistic psychologists • B) behaviorists • C) functionalists • D) cognitive psychologists • D) cognitive psychologists

    34. Gamblers continue to put their money into slot machines because they pay off __________. • A) on a variable ratio • B) at variable intervals • C) at fixed intervals • D) on a fixed ratio • A) on a variable ratio

    35. If you reinforce your dog for sitting by giving him a treat every third time he sites, you are using a __________. • A) continuous schedule of reinforcement • B) random ratio reinforcement schedule • C) fixed interval reinforcement schedule • D) fixed ratio reinforcement schedule • D) fixed ratio reinforcement schedule

    36. Individuals who believe they are unable to control or escape from sources of pain may develop __________. • A) Learned Helplessness • B) Panic Disorder • C) Depression • D) OCD • A) Learned Helplessness

    37. What was Pavlov originally trying to study? • A) Eating behavior of dogs • B) saliva processes • C) digestive system • D) meat powder • C) digestive system

    38. Food, water and sex are examples of • A) Negative reinforcers • B) Secondary reinforcers • C) Positive reinforcers • D) Primary reinforcers • D) Primary reinforcers

    39. Spontaneous recovery occurs when _________ suddenly reappears. • A) your lost wallet • B) a previously extinguished response • C) an extinct instinct • D) a forgotton stimulus-response sequence • B) a previously extinguished response

    40. Dolphin training is done via what principle of learning. • A) continuous reinforcement schedule • B) Generalization • C) Discrimination • D) Shaping • D) Shaping

    41. Developmental psychologists are NOT interested in _____ • a)fetal well-being • b) age-related differences • c) age-related similarities • d) life after death • d) life after death

    42. Age at crawling, walking, and toilet training is primarily dependent on the _____ • a) education level of the parents • b) specific training techniques of the child’s caretakers • c) maturational readiness of the child • d) genetic influences inherited from both mother and father • c) maturational readiness of the child

    43. The period of life when an individual first becomes capable of reproduction is known as_____ • a) the growth spurt • b) adolescence • c) puberty • d) the latency period • c) puberty

    44. According to the language theory of Noam Chomsky, _____. • Children are born “prewired” to learn language • Language development is primarily a result of rewards and modeling of adult speed • Overgeneralizations of speech result from faulty development of the LAD • Language development cannot be determined • a) Children are born “prewired” to learn language

    45. Harlow’s research with infant monkeys and artificial surrogate mothers indicates that ______. • The most important factor in infant development is a loving environment • Attachment is not essential to normal development • There is no significant difference in the choice of wire or terrycloth mothers • The most important variable in attachment may be contact comfort • d) The most important variable in attachment may be contact comfort

    46. Schemas are cognitive structures that contain organized ideas about the world and _____ • Expand or differentiate with experience • May assimilate new information • May accommodate new information • All of the above • d) All of the above

    47. Egocentrism is present in which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? • Preoperational and formal operational • Preoperational only • Sensorimotor and preoperational • Sensorimotor only • a) Preoperational and formal operational

    48. According to Piaget, an infant acqures _____ when he or she understands that people and things continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or be touched. • Conservation • Reversibility • Egocentrism • Object permanence • d) Object permanence

    49. By age _____ most children are capable of communicating adequately in their native language. • 2 • 5 • 7 • 8 • b) 5

    50. Chomsky’s language acquisition device (LAD) is _____. • A child’s inborn ability to learn language • A device given to deaf children to help them learn language despite their hearing loss • Learned in infancy when parents use “baby talk” to stimulate its development • The ability of some children to acquire many languages easily • a) A child’s inborn ability to learn language