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Marketing Myopia. What is Marketing Myopia? failure to see customer-need-oriented business (vs product/service-oriented business) Every major business was once a boom business There is no such thing as a growth business (perpetually). Railroad Story. Railroad business: WAS:

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marketing myopia
Marketing Myopia
  • What is Marketing Myopia?

failure to see customer-need-oriented business (vs product/service-oriented business)

  • Every major business was once a boom business
  • There is no such thing as a growth business (perpetually)


railroad story
Railroad Story
  • Railroad business:
    • WAS:
      • Early 90s: speed, flexibility, durability, economy, full of growth
      • Many royal customers. Investors rush to invest its stocks
      • A tradition, code of honor, source of poetry, most solemn machine.
      • Declining is unthinkable.
    • IS:
      • Overtaken by planes, bus (?)/taxi/own car. Rapidly shrinking industry.
      • Low-class riders; shabby machine/vehicle
      • Great operation loss.
    • WHY ???
      • in rail business instead of in transportation business


oil industry story
Oil Industry Story
  • Thought ever-growing population guarantees growth. (石化工業已不若當年風光. 拜耳 / 六輕)
  • Narrowly defined as oils industry.
      • Providing: crude oil and gas. R&D on oil exploration and refinery efficiency. (Not on improv. Generic product & market)
  • Episodes:
      • Kerosene -> electric lamps <space heater (oil) to rescue>
      • Space heating -> central heating (coal) <intern. comb. Eng (ICE). To rescue>
      • ICE -> Car gas level off <aviation fuel>
      • Central heating -> Natural gas.
        • Oil co. own gas but resist the dev of gas usage. Lost business to a new industry. => narrowly perceived self as oil producer not energy provider.
    • ALL substitutes are from outside the industry. <lost oppr.>
  • Moral(寓意): (cf: morale)
      • Seemingly evergreen yet was of luck
      • Decline is unavoidable - & indeed.
      • Product-oriented vs market need - oriented (substitute energy needs)
      • Missed opportunities to others. (eg. Natural gas)


中鋼 case
  • Taisil company (中德):中鋼 & Hughes <= German company
  • What steel company has to do with semiconductor?
      • Commodity product vs Custom-made product
      • Aggregate MKT driven vs individual customer driven.
      • 0.9999 purity control vs 0.999999999999 purity contr.
      • Millions of tons vs millions of grams
      • Tech. turnover 20 ~30 yrs vs 2~3 yrs.
  • A steel producer => material component provider
      • Satisfying material needs for downstream industries.
      • Core competence: material science.


product vs market vs sales oriented
Product vs Market vs Sales Oriented
  • Product-oriented vs Market-oriented
    • Company tends to be product-oriented.
      • Demise of a major typewriter company. (~30 -> 5000 -> 0)
      • If you do not obsolesce yourself, others will do.

(Continuous product improvement & change product CATEGORY to satisfy customer needs.)

    • Consider yourself as serving a more generic customer needs
      • using your core competency to serve a need provide a value
      • Not just providing a specific product - even continue to improve on that prod.may not be enough. <typewriter>
  • Sales vs Marketing
    • Sales: getting the product out of the door. (seller needs)
    • Marketing: satisfying customers’ needs.


ford production philosophy
Ford Production Philosophy
  • Traditional:
    • Mass production to get cost down. Sales to get the product out.
    • Price is determined by how much can the production/engr. lower the cost. Customer to choose from what are produced.
    • Manufacturing oriented
  • Ford $500 car. ($500 salary level will suffice to buy a car.)
    • Find what price level intended customer will buy the car.
    • Trace backward to force engr/mfg to reduce cost or rearrange features of product.
    • Market oriented.


  • Mgmt think of itself not as producing productsbut as providing customer satisfaction creating customer value. <Using core competence>
  • Internalize the idea to the whole organization.
  • Stimulate/excite employees. (口號, 精神指標)
  • Continuously reminding.
  • These principles are the same for pushing IT or any major ideas w/i the company.