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Chapter 3: Scalability. Chapter objectives. Upon completion of this chapter the student should be able to understand: What scalability means Differences between scaling in and scaling out Mainframe’s hardware relationship with scalability Software scalability levels

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chapter objectives
Chapter objectives
  • Upon completion of this chapter the student should be able to understand:
    • What scalability means
    • Differences between scaling in and scaling out
    • Mainframe’s hardware relationship with scalability
    • Software scalability levels
    • Parallel Sysplex relationship with scalability
    • Workload management main concepts
introduction to scalability
Introduction to scalability
  • Some definitions:
  • Hardware capability of a system to increase performance under an increased load when resources are added (From Wikipedia Encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalability)
  • Software ability to grow with your needs. A scalable software package means that you only buy the parts you need, and that it has the ability to grow by adding on as you grow. (From The Concise Tech Encyclopedia:

http://www.tech-encyclopedia.com/term/scalability)

scalability concepts
Scalability concepts
  • Scalability approaches
    • Scale vertically or scale up : add resource to a single node in a system
    • Scale horizontally or scale out : add nodes to a system
scalability concepts1
Scalability concepts
  • Scalability influences
    • Vertically growth : Upgrade the installed server processor capacity to a larger one within the same family
    • Horizontally growth through Parallel Sysplex: add processor capacity by adding more servers in a cluster.
scalability influences be realistic
25000

20000

15000

10000

Sublinear

Performance

5000

0

Scalability influences : be realistic

IBM System z

Linear

growth

Relative Performance

1

3

5

7

9

15

23

25

11

13

17

19

21

27

29

31

Nways

scalability concepts2
Scalability concepts

Provisioning

Provisioning is the end-to-end capability to automatically deploy and dynamically optimize resources in response to business objectives in heterogeneous environments.

  • helps to respond to changing business
  • is a critical step to being able to then orchestrate the entire environment to respond to business needs on demand.
ibm system z implementation hardware scalability
System I/O Bandwidth

172.8 GB/sec

Balanced System

CPU, nWay, Memory,

I/O Bandwidth*

96 GB/sec

24 GB/sec

ITRs for 1-way

GBs

512 GB

~ 600

256 GB

450

288.15

64 GB

16-way

32-way

System z9 109*

zSeries 990

54-way

zSeries 900

CPUs

Generation 6

Generation 5

*z9-109 exploits a subset of its designed I/O capability

ITR = Internal Throughput Rate

IBM System z implementation – Hardware scalability
ibm system z processors
Z9 Model 38 Configuration

Processor Book 3

Processor Book 1

Processor Book 0

Processor Book 2

Memory Cards

Memory Cards

Memory Cards

Memory Cards

Ring

Structure

Ring

Structure

L2 Cache

L2 Cache

L2 Cache

L2 Cache

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

PU

8 MBA Fanout

8 MBA Fanout

8 MBA Fanout

8 MBA Fanout

16 STIs

16 STIs

16 STIs

16 STIs

ICB-4

2 GB/sec

STIs @ 2.7 GB/sec

STI-MP

&

STI-A8

  • 1 GB/sec
  • 500 MB/sec
  • 333 MB/sec
  • Speed set based on I/O type

STI-MP

&

STI-A8

STI-MP

&

STI-A8

STI-MP

&

STI-A8

STI-MP

&

STI-A8

STI-MP

&

STI-A8

STI-MP

&

STI-A8

STI-MP

&

STI-A8

I/O Card

I/O Ports

I/O Ports

I/O Ports

OSA-Express2

ESCON

Crypto Express2

I/O Cage

I/O Cage

FICON Express2

Note:

Each MBA Fanout card has 2 STI ports. STI connectivity is normally balanced across all installed Books

MBA supports 2 GB/sec for ICB3 and ICB-4 and 2.7 GB/sec for I/O channels. ICB-3 actually run at 1GB/sec

IBM System z processors
scalability of ibm system z parallel sysplex
Coupling Facility

Z9 EC

Z9 BC

SYSPLEX Timer

Z9 EC

ESCON/FICON

Z9 BC

Shared Data

Scalability of IBM System z – Parallel Sysplex
parallel sysplex
Parallel Sysplex
  • Serialization : to coordinate access to resources
    • Enqueuing : serialization for a large number of resource
    • Locking : extremely quick, but only for a small number of resources
  • Communication : Cross-System coupling facility provides simplified multisystep management services withjin a base sysplex configuration
parallel sysplex cont
Parallel Sysplex (Cont...)
  • Data sharing and Coupling facility
parallel sysplex cont1
Parallel Sysplex (Cont...)
  • Workload distribution
    • Manually
    • Round robin
    • Dynamic workload distribution
    • Workload Management-driven application servers
provisioning
Provisioning
  • Dynamic Resource Distribution
    • Up to 60 logical partitions (LPAR)
    • Each LPAR is completely isolated and protected
    • Processors can be shared
    • Workload Manager (WLM) can distributed processing resources across LPAR clusters
    • I/O bandwith can be shared amongs LPARs under WLM control
    • Each LPAR has own physical memory, it can be altered dynamically
capacity on demand cod
CoD encompasses the various capabilities for you o dynamically activate one or more resources in your server as your business peaks dictate.Capacity On Demand (CoD)

Different CoD options:

  • Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CUoD)
  • Customer Initiated Upgrade (CIU)
  • On/Off Capacity on Demand
workload manager wlm
Workload Manager (WLM)
  • The idea of Workload Manager is to make a contract between the installation (end user) and the operating system. The installation classifies the work running on the z/OS operating system in distinct service classes and defines goals for them which express the expectation how the work should perform. WLM uses these goal definitions to manage the work across all systems of a parallel sysplex environment.
wlm cont
WLM (Cont...)
  • Work unit identification
    • Managing Units of Work on z/OS (e.g. A transaction)
wlm cont1
WLM (Cont...)
  • Defining the service level
    • Importance of a goal
    • Adjustment routine
    • Workload Management controls
wlm cont2
WLM (Cont...)
  • WLM extensions
  • Intelligent Resource Director (IRD)
    • CPU LPAR management
    • Dynamic channel path management
    • I/O Priority
summary
Summary
  • The New Mainframe:
    • is scalable
    • On hardware and software level
    • Parallel Sysplex is involved
    • WLM
key terms in this chapter
Access time

CF

CoD

Communication

Coupling facility

Enqueuing

IRD

ITR

Locking

LPAR

Parallel Sysplex

Provision

Scalability

Scale in

Scale out

Serialization

SLA

WLM

Workload

Key terms in this chapter
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