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Chapter 4. Reviewing the Scholarly Literature and Planning a Study. Expansion Box 4.1: Goals of Literature Review. 2. Literature Review. Where to Find Research Literature Periodicals Scholarly journals Citation Abstracts Citation Formats. 3. Literature Review. Books ASR Style

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Chapter 4


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    1. Chapter 4 Reviewing the Scholarly Literature and Planning a Study

    2. Expansion Box 4.1: Goals of Literature Review 2

    3. Literature Review • Where to Find Research Literature • Periodicals • Scholarly journals • Citation • Abstracts • Citation Formats 3

    4. Literature Review • Books • ASR Style • APA Style • Other Styles • Dissertations • Government documents • Policy reports and presented papers 4

    5. Literature Review • How to Conduct a Systematic Literature Review • Define and refine topic • Design search • Locate research reports • Articles in Scholarly Journals • Social Sciences Index 5

    6. Literature Review • Sociological Abstracts • Keyword • Taking Notes • Source File and a Content File • Have File and Potential File • What to record • Organize notes 6

    7. Literature Review • Writing the Review • Requires planning and good, clear writing • Skills • Reading journal articles • What a Good Review Looks Like • The wrong way 7

    8. Using the Internet for Social Research • Upside • Easy, fast, and cheap; links connect sources • “Democratizing” effect; wide net cast • Downside • No quality control; not complete • Often time consuming; difficult to document 8

    9. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Orientations • Nature of data • Soft & hard data • Linear and non linear paths • Preplanned and emergent research questions • Specify the universe • Limitations to research • Time, cost, access, approval, ethics, expertise 9

    10. Techniques for Narrowing a Topic into a Research Question 10

    11. Table 4.1: Quantitative Research versus Qualitative Research 11

    12. Qualitative Design Issues • The Language of Cases and Contexts • Grounded theory • The Context is critical • Bricolage • The Case and Process • Interpretation • First, second, and third-order interpretation 12

    13. Qualitative Design Issues • The Language of Variables and Hypotheses • Variation and Variables • Types of variables • Independent variable (IV) • Dependent variable (DV) • Intervening variable 13

    14. Qualitative Design Issues • Causal Theory and Hypotheses • The Hypothesis and Causality • At least 2 variables • Expresses a cause-effect relationship • Can be expressed as a prediction • Logical link between hypothesis and theory • Falsifiable 14

    15. Qualitative Design Issues • Testing and Refining Hypotheses • Types of Hypotheses • Disconfirming hypotheses • Alternative hypothesis • Null hypothesis • Aspects of Explanation • Clarity about Units and Levels of Analysis 15

    16. Qualitative Design Issues • Level & Unit of analysis • Ecological Fallacy • Reductionism • Fallacy of nonequivalence • Lower or disaggregated • Spuriousness • From Research Question to Hypotheses 16

    17. Figure 4.4: Spurious Relationship- NonWhite “Race” & Low Test Scores 17

    18. Table 4.2: Summary of Errors in Explanation 18

    19. Table 4.3: Examples of Quantitative Studies 19

    20. Table 4.3: Examples of Quantitative Studies 20