Prehistory &Agricultural Revolutions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Prehistory &Agricultural Revolutions

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  1. Prehistory &Agricultural Revolutions Unit 1 8000 BCE – 600 CE

  2. Stone Age • 2 million years ago until 2000 BCE • Stone tool-making (Stone, Bone & Wood) • Categories • Paleolithic • Neolithic

  3. Hunting and Gathering • Foragers • Matrilineal kinship • Comparable status • Men hunted • Goddess worship; animism • Group size limited

  4. Neolithic Revolution • Changeover from food gathering to food producing • Not very accurate term; Neolithic means “new stone” • Occurred at different times in different parts of the world over a millennia • Therefore, agricultural revolutions is more accurate • Middle East

  5. Animal husbandry • Domestication of animals • Also a part of the agricultural revolutions • Dog probably first closely followed by cat • Some adopted animal husbandry while maintaining a H/G lifestyle – called pastoral nomads

  6. Why the transition? • Climate changes • After Ice Age - melting glaciers • Flood accounts in religions (would have happened in areas of first humans) • Minor reason - population growth • H/G could no longer sustain the population

  7. How? • Accidental • Women probably played the major role • Began to select best wild crops for domestication

  8. Effects • Permanent settlements • Food storage • Population growth • Loss of comparable status • Vulnerability to disease • Vulnerability to drought & natural disaster • Exploitation of land & natural resources • Harder & longer days work

  9. Genesis 3:17 • “Cursedis the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life.”

  10. Effects cont. • Stratification of Society • Political organization, standing army, • Villages to cities to trading to writing to conquest to civilizations to empires • New religious beliefs

  11. Characteristics of Agricultural Settlements • Megaliths • Round, mud-bricked cities • Houses • Irrigation networks • Public markets • Government buildings • Taxation • Specialization of labor

  12. Catal Huyuk • One of oldest and most prosperous towns from 6700 to 5700 BCE • Modern day Turkey • Trade • Goddess worship • Volcanic obsidian • Evidence of art • Metal-working

  13. Interaction of Pastoral Nomads & Settled Farmers • Major theme • Trade • Did Nomads learn to farm or did farmers replace nomads?

  14. Indo-European Nomads • Most influence • Name from initial common language that spawned related languages of today from that region • Spread throughout Europe • Spread language & imposed military power • Eventually abandoned nomadic pastoralism for farming

  15. Refamiliarize Yourselves with the Following From Guns, Germs, & Steel: • How the earth was peopled • Linguistic patterns • Indo-European • Bantu • Semitic • How ag shaped the environment and society • Earliest places with independent food production, why, and where • Why some groups would remain H/G when shown how to farm • Specific domesticated animals per region • Globalization of ag (climate, axis, etc.)