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Menstruation. IF fertilization does NOT take place Menstrual cycle – a series of changes controlled by hormones that help prepare the female uterus for a possible pregnancy The cycle is controlled by hormones of the pituitary gland and ovaries The menstrual cycle occurs in 4 stages.

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Menstruation


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menstruation
Menstruation
  • IF fertilization does NOT take place
  • Menstrual cycle – a series of changes controlled by hormones that help prepare the female uterus for a possible pregnancy
    • The cycle is controlled by hormones of the pituitary gland and ovaries
    • The menstrual cycle occurs in 4 stages
stage 1 follicle stage
stage 1 - Follicle stage
  • Ovarian hormones (estrogen and progesterone) are in low concentrations
  • The pituitary produces FSH which causes a follicle (egg cell capsule) to form
  • As the follicle grows it makes increased amounts of estrogen
    • Estrogen has negative feedback on the pituitary to stop FSH
    • Estrogen causes the uterine lining (endometrium) to grow thicker
stage 2 ovulation
Stage 2 - Ovulation
  • Increased estrogen from the follicle stimulates the pituitary gland to produce LH
  • The LH surge causes the follicle to rupture and the egg cell is sent to the oviduct
stage 3 corpus luteum
Stage 3 – Corpus Luteum
  • The ruptured follicle heals inside the ovary forming the corpus luteum
    • Yellow body
  • The corpus luteum produces progesterone
  • Estrogen and progesterone maintains the added growth of the uterine lining
slide6
An embryo in the uterus will secrete a chemical called HCG
  • HCG prevents the corpus luteum from decomposing which maintains progesterone levels
  • The endometrium is not shed
    • HCG is the chemical that is detected by pregnancy tests
stage 4 menstruation
Stage 4 - Menstruation
  • If an embryo is not present approximately 2 weeks after ovulation the corpus luteum decomposes
  • Estrogen and progesterone levels decrease
  • The endometrium (uterine lining) is shed and moves out through the vagina