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Bite sized training sessions: Objectives & Principles. Objectives. To understand What objectives and principles are Where they come from Where they fit in to analysis of requirements The importance of objectives and principles To be able to Find objectives and principles

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To understand

What objectives and principles are

Where they come from

Where they fit in to analysis of requirements

The importance of objectives and principles

To be able to

Find objectives and principles

Document objectives and principles

chain of reasoning
Chain Of Reasoning:

Change Requirements must be assumed to be wrong until they are provedto be right


the big questions who are the project killer stakeholders
The big questions…who are the project killer stakeholders?
  • There are a set of people and organisation units that can kill your project
  • They may be obvious and they may not
  • They may not all be killer stakeholders for the same reasons.

project killer stakeholders?

Compliance stakeholders

e.g. Policy, legal, H&S, Audit,

external regulators

Rules, requirements, constraints



Customers of

The solution

(internal and/or

external depending

on project)



e.g. Organisation Owner,

Process owner, Product

or Service owner


Performance criteria

Requirements, orders

KPI results, profits, etc

Required service or product

Resource requests

Resource availability

Resource Supplier Stakeholders

e.g. people who can allocate buildings, systems,

equipment, consumables,

spares, sub-contractors

NB: Expect all stakeholder interactions to come in pairs: typically a request and response.

  • There are reasons why a project exists – something has ‘driven’ the need for it
  • Drivers have driven the project killer stakeholders to sponsor the project
  • These drivers tend to be
    • Problems the stakeholders want fixed AND/OR
    • Opportunities the stakeholders want to exploit AND/OR
    • Standards/regulation/legislation the stakeholders want to comply with
  • Drivers need to be analysed…
    • One component of that analysis is

defining how the stakeholders know

a driver has been addressed…

smart objectives
SMART Objectives
  • How will a killer stakeholder know a project was successful?
    • Answer: the drivers have been addressed
  • How will a killer stakeholder know the drivers have been addressed?
    • Answer: they will monitor/measure something(s) that tells them
  • Therefore, BAs need to know
    • What is being measured
    • What target value means that the drivers have been addressed
  • The target value for a measure is an Objective
  • The Objective needs to be SMART

Question: what is the difference between an Objective and a benefit?

smart objectives8
SMART Objectives
  • But …
  • … one driver might have many measures
  • … one measure might be a measure for many drivers
  • Example: Killer stakeholders could have desires to
    • Increase customer satisfaction AND
    • improve the sales process

Net sales per customer might be one of the measures for both.

How much must net sales increase as a consequence of the project in order for the project to be considered sucessful?

  • Therefore
    • Identify the objectives in order to…
    • deliver the solution to achieve the objectives in order to…
    • know all drivers have been addressed
  • Suppose a driver exists to improve the customer experience – what measures are going to be used?
    • Customer satisfaction?
  • A measure that is not measured (can’t be or just won’t be) and so has no target can be thought of as a Principle
  • Requirements can be defined that contribute to achieving the Principles
    • E.g. “be able to tailor a customer greeting with individual customer details” could be justified because it should increase customer satisfaction – we won’t know if this happens because no-one will ever measure it.
the big questions what are the project objectives principles
The big questions…what are the project Objectives & Principles?
  • Only killer stakeholders can define the Objectives & Principles
  • Killer stakeholders will – typically – want to define vague Objectives…why?
  • There is a 2-way dependency on Drivers and Objectives
  • Not all “valid” Objectives are necessarily in scope!
exercise define some project driver objectives and principles
Exercise: Define some project driver Objectives and Principles
  • For the drivers you have identified, define some relevant Objectives and Principles
  • The business are available to answer questions.
  • If you need to make any assumptions, document them.
  • Time allowed: 20 minutes
  • Deliverable: flipchart of drivers and assumptions.