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Principles of Education and Training. Chapter 6 The Early History of Education in America. The Early History of Education in America. Objectives:. Give examples of how education during the American Colonial Period reflected local culture and beliefs.

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principles of education and training

Principles of Education and Training

Chapter 6 The Early History of Education in America

the early history of education in america
The Early History of Education in America

Objectives:

  • Give examples of how education during the American Colonial Period reflected local culture and beliefs.
  • Trace changes in the preparation, roles, and status of teachers over time.
  • Describe how educational opportunities changed from colonial times forward.
  • Analyze how key people in early education reform responded to concerns of the time.
  • Research how education developed in your community.
american colonial period 1600 1776
American Colonial Period (1600-1776)

European Migration

  • Many Europeans came to what would later become the United States for many reasons:
    • Economic opportunity
    • Greater religious freedom
    • Idea of producing a better society
    • Adventurers

Educational opportunities

  • As varied as the motives for immigrating
    • Reflected the beliefs of the immigrants
    • Opportunities differed by location
    • No overall educational system
slide4

American Colonial Period (1600-1776)

At first, most education took place in the home.

  • Schools that did exist were primarily for elementary grades.
  • Very few universities and colleges
    • Harvard University and College of William & Mary
    • Very few students had the opportunity to attend
  • Most older children worked on family farms or in family businesses.
slide5

American Colonial Period (1600-1776)

  • Apprenticeships

Apprentice—someone who learns a skilled trade by watching and helping someone in that trade.

Some worked without pay for an agreed-on period in exchange for their learning.

new england colonies

American Colonial Period (1600-1776)

By Area

New England Colonies

Included: Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island

  • Most migrated from England
  • Majority were Puritans
    • Religious group that believed religious education was important
    • Valued each person’s ability to read the Bible
    • Also taught basic skills for farming
    • Education was a way to ensure their beliefs and way of life would be safeguarded
  • As early as 1642, MA enacted a law requiring every town to establish a school. However, it wasn’t always followed.
middle colonies

American Colonial Period (1600-1776)

By Area

Middle Colonies

Included: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

  • Immigrants from Ireland, Scotland, Holland, Germany, and England
  • Backgrounds more diverse
    • No common school system
    • Cultural groups established their own schools
  • Quakers
    • Religious group from England
    • Settled around Philadelphia
    • Believed that everyone should be educated
    • Tolerant of others’ religious beliefs
    • Established the 1st school that welcomed all regardless of religion or race.
southern colonies

American Colonial Period (1600-1776)

By Area

Southern Colonies

Included: Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia

  • Rigid social and economic class divisions
  • Education was not seen as a function of government
  • Sons of wealthy plantation owners received formal education in preparation for college
  • Middle-class and poor children (especially girls) had fewer opportunities for formal education
  • Slaves were only taught skills that were useful to their owners
  • Dame schools
    • Students were taught by women in their own homes
    • Parents paid for their children to attend
    • Open to both boys and girls
the role of teachers
The Role of Teachers
  • Ranked just below religious leaders in importance
  • Expected to teach and act as examples of moral behavior
  • Teachers could not drink, smoke, date, or marry
  • Regular church attendance was required
  • Participation in civic events was required
  • Expected to be industrious and honest
  • Teachers routinely cleaned the school, visited the sick, and performed other charitable acts
school curriculum
School Curriculum
  • Most schools focused on basic reading, writing, simple math, and religion.
  • Some students educated beyond elementary, but few formal schools existed

By Area

  • New England Colonies
    • Training for trades available (Ex: shoemaking)
  • Southern Colonies
    • Astronomy for navigation and plantation management skills
  • Sons of wealthy parents often learned Latin, Greek, and more advanced math.
school curriculum1
School Curriculum
  • Girls learned sewing and other home management skills.
  • Girls from wealthy families sometimes had the opportunity to study literature and poetry.
  • Books were rare and expensive
    • Schools used hornbooks for instruction

Hornbooks—a flat wooden board with a handle. A sheet of paper—usually containing the alphabet, a prayer or two, and Roman numerals—was pasted on the board.

    • Paper was scarce so a flat piece of clear animal horn was attached to cover and protect the paper.
  • Widely used throughout the colonies until the 1800s when books became less expensive.
slide12

American Early National Period

(1776-1840)

Began with the American Revolution.

  • People of the time believed they could make a better society and were eager to try new ideas.
  • America was still primarily a rural nation
    • Most children grew up on farms or in small towns
    • Most children expected to live their adult lives much like

that of their parents’

slide13

American Early National Period (1776-1840)

  • Changes occurred more quickly in cities and eventually spread to rural areas
  • Schools were seen as a vehicle for making a better society
  • Ideas and traditions of Europe came to have less of an influence
  • Education was seen as a way to promote the new nation’s ideals of freedom and liberty
  • Religion played less of a role in education
  • Focus became on teaching skills needed for

agriculture, business, and shipping.

benjamin franklin

American Early National Period

Benjamin Franklin

(1776-1840)

  • Believed understanding science helped people understand people and societies.
  • Read every book he could find and wanted others to have this opportunity so he began the first public library.

Influential politician as well as a respected scientist, writer, and inventor.

  • Started a secondary school in Philadelphia
  • Influence: good citizenship taught, public schools available to all, and variety of subjects.
thomas jefferson

American Early National Period

Thomas Jefferson

(1776-1840)

  • Played a major role in establishing the current American educational system.
  • Believed that education was the key to making the newly formed democracy a success.

3rd US President as well as an architect, philosopher, inventor, farmer, and writer.

  • Passed legislation in VA to create a public system of education
  • Wanted elementary schools to be available w/o cost
  • Establishment of the University of Virginia
the role of teachers1
The Role of Teachers
  • They continued to be positive models of good citizenship for their students
  • Expected to be involved in both church and community issues in order to make the community a better place
  • Teachers taught that citizenship involved:
    • Obeying laws and rules
    • Respecting authority
school curriculum2
School Curriculum
  • Continued to teach the basics along with Christian principles and citizenship.
  • Students now also learned Greek, Roman, English, and American history.
  • Educational opportunities still remained limited, especially in less populated areas.
  • Wealthy boys went on to study Greek, Latin, and English grammar plus advanced math, geography, literature, and science in preparation for university.

Slates and chalk were often used instead of paper.

slide18

American Common School Period

(1840-1880)

Many changes during this time including: westward expansion and the Civil war.

  • At the beginning of this period, most American children received minimal, if any, schooling.
  • At the end of this period, education was more widely available, including free public education.
horace mann

American Common School Period

Horace Mann

(1840-1880)

  • Worked to establish free, public education for all.
  • The first state-supported schools were called common schools.
  • Tried to improve and standardize schools

1st Secretary of the State Board of Education in MA.

  • One of the keys to this was establishing normal schools for teacher-training
  • Successfully advocated the establishments of free libraries.
horace mann influences continued

American Common School Period

Horace Mann Influences Continued

(1840-1880)

  • Increased state funding for education by using state taxes to pay for education
  • Believed that schools should be nonsectarian since it was paid for by tax dollars.
  • However, since the majority of the country was Christian, morality based on general Christian principles was still taught.
  • Many of his ideas are still part of today’s educational system.
african american education before the civil war

American Common School Period

African American Education—Before the Civil War

(1840-1880)

  • Very few enslaved African Americans were able to read and write.
    • Most who learned did so in secret.
    • Laws existed in many places in the South prohibiting educating African Americans
    • Whites feared that if they were educated it would lead to a rebellion
  • In the northern states, former slaves faced tremendous obstacles to education (both social and economic).
  • African Americans usually struggled with low wages so children would usually work as soon as they were old enough.
african american education after the civil war

American Common School Period

African American Education—After the Civil War

(1840-1880)

  • Many people put forth a real effort to improve their educational opportunities.
  • Educated African Americans set up schools.
  • Some northern churches sent missionaries to the south to start schools.
  • First African American colleges were founded
    • Howard University
    • Spellman College (for women)
  • Many efforts were short-lived
  • Most schools remained strictly segregated.
the role of teachers2
The Role of Teachers
  • At the beginning of the period, most children were educated at home or in small country schoolhouses where one teacher taught all grades.
  • Teachers in small country school houses were paid by community members and salaries were quite low because people had little money to spare
  • Horace Mann’s impact led to teachers who were better prepared to teach
    • Applicants to normal schools had to take a test to show they were properly educated
    • As a result, there were higher expectations of teachers’
    • knowledge and teaching abilities.
  • More teachers were women and this allowed them to make a living on their own.
school curriculum3
School Curriculum
  • More change in how subjects were taught than which subjects were taught.

Kindergarten

  • Idea of Friedrich Froebel, a German educator
    • He believed that young children learned best through play
    • His ideas were not widely accepted in Germany but American educators were interested in the concept
  • At first, these classes were established in America with the intention to help poor children succeed in school.
  • In the 1870s, public schools began offering kindergarten programs
  • Prior to the introduction of Kindergarten, children did not attend school until they were about 7 years old
school curriculum4
School Curriculum

The McGuffey Readers

  • Textbooks became much more widely available during this period.
  • Reverend William Holmes McGuffey was asked to write a textbook and this was the beginning of the McGuffey readers.
    • McGuffey readers—a series of books that were used across the country to teach moral lessons along with reading, spelling, and other subjects.
    • EX: A reading story might show the importance of being honest or kind.
    • They helped standardize American education because they

were used in so many schools.

  • Subsequent McGuffey readers taught history, biology, botany, literature, and speech along w/ proper behavior.
school curriculum5
School Curriculum

The Morrill Act

  • In 1862, federal land was given to establish colleges in every state.
  • This is also known as the Land-Grant College Act
  • These colleges were to provide practical education in agriculture, home economics, and other useful professions to people from all social classes.
  • This made higher education available to Americans nationwide.
  • In 1890, a second Morrill Act expanded the system.
slide27

American Progressive Period

(1880-1921)

Bridged the 19th and 20th centuries.

  • Women were gaining more rights.
  • European immigrants were pouring into the nation’s cities. (Over 15 million new immigrants)
  • The Industrial Revolution continued to change both work and society.
  • It was a time of business expansion and reform in the United States.
  • Progressives—members of a reform movement that

began late in the 1800s.

  • Wanted to regulate big businesses that took advantage of workers and consumers and corrupt government officials
slide28

American Progressive Period

(1880-1921)

  • Half of the rural population abandoned farming and moved to towns and cities to find work between 1880 and 1920.
  • Immigrants settled primarily in cities.
  • Urban areas became overcrowded due to the promise of work for many.
  • Many new city dwellers lacked education, practical skills, and financial resources.
  • Few government resources to help these people so disease and poverty became widespread.
slide29

American Progressive Period

(1880-1921)

  • Those who found employment faced long work hours and hazardous conditions.
  • Many children worked limiting their educational opportunities.
  • Urban schools were also overcrowded and conditions were poor.
  • Progressives wanted to make the world a more democratic place.
    • They placed laws reducing the number of hours children could work in factories.
  • By 1920, all states had laws requiring children to attend elementary schools.
the role of teachers3

Segregated Education

The Role of Teachers
  • Schools were still highly segregated
  • Public schools for African Americans received less funding.
  • Educational materials were scarce and inferior.
    • Often hand me downs from “white” schools
  • African Americans could only teach at African American schools and received significantly lower pay
  • Teachers were considered professionals
  • Teacher preparation programs in colleges replaced
  • normal schools
  • More emphasis was placed on educational theories
the role of teachers4
The Role of Teachers
  • Many teachers became unhappy with the emphasis on standardization.
    • They wanted more freedom in their classrooms
    • First teachers’ union was formed to protect the working rights of teachers
    • The Union fought to improve pay, status, and working conditions
  • Women entered the workforce in greater numbers
    • Many became teachers and some even rose to the position of principals
  • By the end of the period, women had earned the right

to vote

  • Many felt this was a result of their presence in classrooms.
school curriculum6
School Curriculum
  • Progressives felt education had became too standardized and though students should be encouraged to think critically and independently.
  • They felt that citizens trained to think and question would work to clean up corrupt government officials, improve working conditions in factories, and create better living conditions for those who lived in poverty.
    • Schools should set children on this path.
  • So a science teacher might focus on the need for water sanitation.
  • Thousands of public high schools opened during this era.
  • A high school diploma became more important in finding a job.
john dewey
John Dewey
  • Educational philosopher, psychologist, and writer
  • Leading voice for progressive education during the era
  • Believed that classrooms were too rigid and inflexible and didn’t adapt to the needs, interests, and abilities of the individual students.
  • Thought a greater emphasis should be placed on problem-solving and critical-thinking.
  • Drew a link between learning and experience
    • Believed students learned best through real-life activities that linked new information to previous experiences.
  • Believed in social interaction—working together on projects and discussions.
  • Teachers should guide learning not simply provide information
maria montessori
Maria Montessori
  • Italy’s 1st female doctor
  • Tried to find ways to help children who had difficulty learning
  • She believed that young children are capable of great discovery and motivated to explore the world
  • She believed sensory experiences should come before learning to read and write
  • Montessori Method
    • Considers all of a child’s needs not just intellectual needs.
    • Montessori classrooms are stimulating environments
    • Children direct their own learning w/ teachers as their partners
  • Teachers encourage children to judge their own progress and choose their own interests

Her program remains well-recognized and accepted today.

career and technical education
Career and Technical Education
  • Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 established federal funds to support vocational education (now called career and technical education)
  • Career and technical education—prepared (and still prepares) students for the many career opportunities in specific trades and occupations where skilled workers were needed.
  • The funding provided greatly influenced the spread of the career and technical classes in public high schools.
slide36

The 1920s and the Great Depression Era

(1921-1940)

After WWI, many Americans turned away from concerns about political reform but remained influenced by the Progressive movement in education which continued in this period.

  • Economic prosperity of the 1920s increased the size of the middle class and more people had disposable income.
  • Americans became consumers, rather than producers, of their own consumable goods
  • Introduction of the automobile became the stimulus for industrial growth in the nation
  • Credit became more widely available and consumer credit issues surfaced for the 1st time
    • Consumer education became a need
slide37

The 1920s and the Great Depression Era

(1921-1940)

  • Rate of immigration became a concern.
    • Quotas were set on the number of immigrants allowed in the country.
  • Many economists thought the prosperity would continue.
  • Few had concerns when, on October 14, 1929, the New York Stock Market crashed.
    • The day, known as Black Thursday, caused an economic panic that put the country into The Great Depression.
impact of economy on schools

The 1920s and the Great Depression Era

Impact of Economy on Schools

(1921-1940)

  • In good economic times, schools expand both in number and what they offer.
    • This was true during the 1920s.
  • In hard economic times, schools have to respond to lost revenue.
  • During the Great Depression, the situation for schools was bleak.
    • Public schools faced a shortage of cash, since many citizens were unable to pay their taxes.
  • Some school districts ceased to operate while others shortened their school year.
  • Teacher pay was often decreased or eliminated.
  • Course offerings was cut back to basic subjects.
impact of economy on schools1

The 1920s and the Great Depression Era

Impact of Economy on Schools

(1921-1940)

  • Some families found it difficult to keep their children fed and dressed
    • There often wasn’t enough money for books and school supplies.
    • Many children were simply unable to attend school.
    • Some children worked to supplement the family income.
  • The federal government stepped in to help
    • Funds helped support some schools to hire teachersand purchase supplies.
    • Schools also began offering free hot lunches for children.
  • Better schools were built in some communities.
  • By the end of the 1930s, the Great Depression was starting to ease and families were getting back on their feet
dick and jane readers

The 1920s and the Great Depression Era

“Dick and Jane” Readers

(1921-1940)

  • In the early 1930s, a new set of reading textbooks for beginning readers began publication
  • Often known as the “Dick and Jane” books, these books taught basic reading skills with simple stories about a family
  • From the 1930s to the 1960s, over 85 million students used these textbooks.
  • As with the McGuffey readers before them, their widespread use helped standardize education
end of chapter six
End of Chapter Six
  • Review Date: _____________
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