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Leadership. Leadership. What is it? Hard to define We know it when we see it General Definition Social influence in an organizational setting, the effects of which are relevant to or have an impact on the achievement of organizational goals. Leader Effectiveness.

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Leadership1
Leadership

  • What is it?

    • Hard to define

    • We know it when we see it

  • General Definition

    • Social influence in an organizational setting, the effects of which are relevant to or have an impact on the achievement of organizational goals


Leader effectiveness
Leader Effectiveness

  • How can we tell a “good” leader from a “poor” leader? (What results would we expect to see from a “good” leader?)

    • Performance (the job gets done)

    • Motivation (followers are energized)

    • Effort (followers try hard)

    • Satisfaction (followers are happy)


Focus of trait approach

Focuses exclusivelyon leader

What traits leaders exhibit

Who has these traits

Organizations use personality assessments to find “Right” people

Assumption- will increase organizational effectiveness

Specify characteristics/traits for specific positions

Personality assessment measures for “fit”

Focus of Trait Approach

Personality

Assessments

Leader


Strengths

Intuitively appealing

Perception that leaders are different in that they possess special traits

People “need” to view leaders as gifted

Credibility due to a century of research support

Highlights leadership component in the leadership process

Deeper level understanding of how leader/personality related to leadership process

Provides benchmarks for what to look for in a leader

Strengths


Criticisms

Fails to delimita definitive list of leadership traits

Endless lists have emerged

Doesn’t take into account situational effects

Leaders in one situation may not be leaders in another situation

List of most important leadership traits is highly subjective

Much subjective experience & observations serve as basis for identified leadership traits

Research fails to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes

Not useful for training & development

Criticisms


Application

Provides direction as to which traits are good to have if one aspires to a leadership position

Through various tests and questionnaires, individuals can determine whether they have the select leadership traits and can pinpoint their strengths and weaknesses

Can be used by managers to assess where they stand within their organization and what is needed to strengthen their position

Application

  • Leadership Traits

  • Intelligence

  • Self-Confidence

  • Determination

  • Integrity

  • Sociability

  • Adaptability


Style approach description
Style Approach Description one aspires to a leadership position

  • Leader-focused perspective

  • Emphasis on what leaders do and how they act

Perspective

Definition

  • Comprised of Two Kinds of Behaviors

    • Task behaviors

      • Facilitate goal accomplishment

    • Relationship behaviors

      • Help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves, each other, and the situation


Style approach

Primarily a framework for assessing leadership in a broad way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

Offers a means of generally assessing the behaviors of leaders

Style Approach

Focus

Overall Scope


Strengths1
Strengths way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Style Approach marked a major shift in leadership research from exclusively trait focused to include behaviors and actions of leaders

  • Broad range of studies on leadership style validates and gives credibility to the basic tenets of the approach

  • At conceptual level, a leader’s style is composed of two major types of behaviors: task and relationship

  • Based on style approach, leaders can assess their actions and determine how to change to improve their leadership style


Criticisms1
Criticisms way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Research has not adequately demonstrated how leaders’ styles are associated with performance outcomes

  • No universal style of leadership that could be effective in most situations

  • Implies that the most effective leadership style is High-High style (i.e., high task/high relationship); research finding support is limited


Leadership as behavior
Leadership as Behavior way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • 100’s of studies examined the effects of leader behavior on employees.

  • Results were mixed, inconclusive (Bass, 1990).

    • Fleishman and Harris (1962) found that initiating structure was positively related to employee grievances and turnover.

    • House, Filley, and Kerr (1971) found evidence suggesting initiating structure was positively related to employee satisfaction.


Leadership as behavior1
Leadership as Behavior way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Fleischman & Harris

    • The effects of IS on grievances depends on Consideration

    • The effects of both traits and behavior on leader effectiveness depends on the situation


Contingency theory approach
Contingency Theory Approach way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Contingency theory is a leader-match theory (Fiedler & Chemers, 1974)

    • Tries to match leaders to appropriate situations

  • Leader’s effectiveness depends on how well the leader’s style fits the context

  • Fiedler et al.’s generalizations about which styles of leadership are best and worst are empirically grounded

“Leaders match their style to the competence and commitment of subordinates.”

Perspective

Definition

  • Effective leadership is contingent on matching a leader’s style to the right setting


Leadership styles

Leadership styles are described as: way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

Task motivated

Relationship motivated

Task-motivated leaders -Concerned primarily with reaching a goal

Relationship-motivated leaders - Concerned with developing close interpersonal relationships

Leadership Styles

Definition

Dimension Definitions

Leader Style Measurement Scale

Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale

High = Relationship-motivated leader

Low = Task-motivated leader


Situational variables

Leader-Member Relations way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

Task Structure

Position Power

LMR - Refers to the group atmosphere and the degree of confidence, loyalty, and attraction of followers for leader

TS - Concerns the degree to which requirements of a task are clear and spelled out

PP - Designates the amount of authority a leader has to reward or punish followers

Situational Variables

Situational

Factors

Definition

Determine

Favorableness

of Situations

in Organizations


Contingency model

Leader- way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

Member

Relations

Good

Poor

Task

Structure

High

Structure

Low

Structure

High

Structure

Low

Structure

Position

Power

Strong

Power

Weak

Power

Strong

Power

Weak

Power

Strong

Power

Weak

Power

Strong

Power

Weak

Power

Preferred

Leadership

Style

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Low LPCs

Middle LPCs

Low

LPCs

High LPCs

Contingency Model


Strengths2
Strengths way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Empirical support. Contingency theory has been tested by many researchers and found to be a valid and reliable approach to explaining how to achieve effective leadership.

  • Broadened understanding. Contingency theory has broadened the scope of leadership understanding from a focus on a single, best type of leadership (e.g., trait approach) to emphasizing the importance of a leader’s style and the demands of different situations.

  • Predictive. Because Contingency theory is predictive, it provides relevant information regarding the type of leadership that is most likely to be effective in particular contexts.

  • Not an all-or-nothing approach. Contingency theory contends that leaders should notexpect to be effective in every situation; thus companies should strive to place leaders in optimal situations according to their leadership style.

  • Leadership profiles. Contingency theory supplies data on leadership styles that could be useful to organizations in developing leadership profiles for human resource planning.


Criticisms2
Criticisms way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Fails to fully explain why leaders with particular leadership styles are more effective in some situations than others (Black Box problem)

  • Criticism of LPC scale validity as it does not correlate well with other standard leadership measures

  • Cumbersome to use in real-world settings

  • Fails to adequately explain what should be done about a leader/situation mismatch in the workplace


Path goal theory approach
Path-Goal Theory Approach way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Goal - To enhance employee performance and satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation

  • Premise - Subordinates will be motivated if they believe: (a) they are capable of performing their work; (b) that their efforts will be rewarded; and (c) that the payoff will be worthwhile

  • Challenge - To use a leadership style that best meets subordinates’ motivational needs

Perspective

Definition

  • Path-goal theory centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals


Conditions of leadership motivation

It increases the way as behavior with a task and relationship dimensionnumber and kinds of payoffs

Path to the goal is clear and easily traveled with coaching and direction

Obstacles and roadblocks are removed

The work itself is personally satisfying

Conditions of Leadership Motivation

Leadership generates motivation when:


Path goal theory approach1

Path-goal theory is a complex but also pragmatic approach way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

Leaders should choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and their work

Path-goal theory provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles will interact with subordinate characteristics and the work situation to affect employee motivation

Path-Goal Theory Approach

Focus

Overall Scope


Situational theories of leadership
Situational Theories of Leadership way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

Path-Goal Theory hypothesizes that effects of leader behavior on employee performance and satisfaction depend on how leader behavior affects employee motivation.

Directive - Providing guidelines on how to perform tasks.. 

Supportive - demonstrating concern for subordinates’ well being and must be supportive of them as individuals. 

Participative - leader must solicit ideas and suggestions from subordinates and directly invite their participation. 

Achievement - leader sets challenging goals, emphasizing improvements in work performance, and encouraging high levels of goal attainment. 

Effective leaders need all four of these styles since each produces different results. 


Strengths3
Strengths way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Useful theoretical framework. Path-goal theory is a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance.

  • Integrates motivation.Path-goal theory attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership.

  • Practical model.Path-goal theory provides a practical model that underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates.


Criticisms3
Criticisms way as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • Interpreting the meaning of the theory can be confusing because it is so complex and incorporates so many different aspects of leadership; consequently, it is difficult to implement.

  • Empirical research studies have demonstrated only partial support for path-goal theory.

  • It fails to adequately explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation.

  • The path-goal theory approach treats leadership as a one-way event in which the leader affects the subordinate.


Application1

PGT offers valuable insights that can be applied in ongoing settings to improve one’s leadership.

Informs leaders about when to be directive, supportive, participative, or achievement oriented

The principles of PGT can be employed by leaders at all organizational levels and for all types of tasks

Application


Situational theories of leadership1
Situational Theories of Leadership settings to improve one’s leadership.

  • Vroom-Yetton Normative Model

    • Leadership as decision making

      • Decision-situation model

  • Theorized that performance was affected by the process leaders use to make decisions


Vroom yetton normative model
Vroom-Yetton Normative Model settings to improve one’s leadership.

  • Process used to make decision affects:

    • Decision quality

    • Decision acceptance

  • The effectiveness of any decision making process depends on several situational factors


Decision making example
Decision Making Example settings to improve one’s leadership.

You are the head of a personnel department which reports to the company president. The president has asked you to make recommendations on how to change and update the performance appraisal system. You are not sure about the approach to take. Your specialty is selection and you desire more information on performance appraisal. Fortunately, three members of your staff are experienced with the various aspects of performance appraisal. However, they rarely agree with each other on the best way to achieve something when it comes to performance appraisal. Fortunately, for this project, these employees will not implement the recommendations.


Leadership as power

Agent exerts more influence on a target than a target can resist.

Possible outcomes of using power

Resistance

Compliance

Commitment

Sources of Power

Reward

Coercive

Legitimate

Expert

Referent

Leadership as Power


Likely outcomes of using power

Type of Outcome resist.

Base of

Power

Commitment

Compliance

Resistance

Likely

Referent

Possible

Possible

Likely

Expert

Possible

Possible

Likely

Legitimate

Possible

Possible

Likely

Reward

Possible

Possible

Likely

Coercive

Possible

Very Unlikely

Likely Outcomes of Using Power


Lmx theory approach description
LMX Theory Approach Description resist.

  • Development - LMX theory first described by Dansereau, Graen, & Haga (1975), Graen & Cashman (1975), and Graen (1976)

  • Revisions - Theory has undergone a number of revisions since its inception and continues to be of interest to researchers

  • Assumption - LMX theory challenges the assumption that leaders treat followers in a collective way.

Perspective

Definition

  • LMX theory conceptualizes leadership as a process centered in the interactions between leaders and followers.


Later studies

Initial research primarily addressed resist.differences between in-groups and out-groups; later research addressed how LMX theory was related to organizational effectiveness

Researchers (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) found that high-quality leader-member exchanges resulted in:

Less employee turnover

More positive performance evaluations

Higher frequency of promotions

Greater organizational commitment

More desirable work assignments

Better job attitudes

More attention and support from the leader

Greater participation

Faster career progress

Later Studies


Phases in leadership making graen uhl bien 1995

Stranger resist.

Acquaintance

Partner

Roles

Scripted

Tested

Negotiated

Influences

One Way

Mixed

Reciprocal

Exchanges

Low Quality

Medium Quality

High Quality

Interests

Self

Self / Other

Group

TIME

Phases in Leadership MakingGraen & Uhl-Bien (1995)

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3


Phase 1 graen uhl bien 1995
Phase 1 resist.Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995)

Phase 1

Stranger

  • Interactions rule bound

  • Rely on contractual relationships

  • Relate to each other within prescribed

  • organizational roles

  • Experience lower quality exchanges

  • Subordinate motives directed

  • toward self-interest


Phase 2 graen uhl bien 1995
Phase 2 resist.Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995)

Phase 2

Acquaintance

  • Offer by leader/subordinate for improved

  • career-oriented social exchanges

  • Testing period of taking on new roles and

  • leader providing new challenges

  • Shift from formalized interactions to

  • new ways of relating

  • Quality of exchanges improve along with

  • greater trust and respect

  • Less focus on self-interest, moreon goals of

  • the group


Phase 3 graen uhl bien 1995

Phase 3 resist.

Mature Partnership

  • Marked by high-quality LMX exchanges

  • Experience high degree of mutual trust,

  • respect, and obligation toward one another

  • Tested relationship that is dependable

  • High degree of reciprocity between leader and

  • subordinate

  • May depend on each other for favors and

  • special assistance

  • Highly developed patterns of relating that

  • produce positive outcomes

Phase 3Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995)


Lmx theory approach

Essential to recognize existence of in-groups & out-groups resist.

Significant differences in how goals are accomplished using in-groups vs. out-groups

Relevant differences in in-group vs. out-group behaviors

Best understood within the Leadership Making Model

Leader forms special relationship with each subordinate

Leader should offer each subordinate an opportunity for new roles/responsibilities

Leader should nurture high-quality exchanges with all subordinates

Rather than concentrating on differences, leader should focus on ways to build trust

LMX Theory Approach

Descriptive

Prescriptive


Strengths4
Strengths resist.

  • LMX theory validates our experience of how people within organizations relate to each other and the leader

  • LMX theory is the only leadership approach that makes the dyadic relationship the centerpiece of the leadership process

  • LMX theory directs our attention to the importance of communication

  • Solidresearch foundation on how the practice of LMX theory is related to positive organizational outcomes


Criticisms4
Criticisms resist.

  • Inadvertently supports the development of privileged groups in the workplace; appears unfair and discriminatory

  • The basic theoretical ideas of LMX are not fully developed

  • Because of various scales and levels of analysis, measurement of leader-member exchanges is being questioned


Application2

Applicable to all levels of management and different types of organizations

Directs managers to assess their leadership from a relationship perspective

Sensitizes managers to how in-groups and out-groups develop within their work unit

Can be used to explain how individuals create leadership networks throughout an organization

Application


Model of transformational leadership bass 1985
Model of Transformational Leadership of organizationsBass (1985)

TL motivates followers beyond the expected by:

  • raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals

  • transcending self-interest for the good of the organization

  • addressing higher-level needs

Transformational

Leadership

Transactional

Leadership

Laissez-Faire

Leadership


Transformational leadership factors

Factor 3 of organizations

Intellectual

Stimulation

Factor 7

Laissez-Faire

Nontransactional

Factor 5

Contingent Reward

Constructive

Transactions

Factor 2

Inspirational

Motivational

Factor 1

Idealized Influence

Charisma

Transformational Leadership Factors

Factor 4

Individualized

Consideration

Factor 6

Mgmt. by Exception

Active & Passive

Corrective Transactions

Lassiez-Faire

Transformational

Transactional

  • Leaders who exhibit TL:

  • have a strong set of values & ideals

  • are effective in motivating followers to support

    greater good over self-interest


Transformational leadership factors the 4 i s
Transformational Leadership Factors of organizationsThe 4 “I”s

Idealized

Influence

Describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers

Inspirational

Motivation

Leaders who communicate high expectations to followers, inspiring them through motivation to commitment and engagement in the shared vision of the organization

Intellectual

Stimulation

Stimulates followers to be creative and innovative; challenges

their own beliefs and values and those of leader and organization

Individualized

Consideration

Leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully

to the needs of followers


Transactional leadership factors
Transactional Leadership Factors of organizations

Contingent

Reward

The exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by

followers is exchanged for specified rewards

Management by

Exception

  • Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and

  • negative reinforcement

  • Two forms

    • Active - Watches follower closely to identify mistakes/rule violations

    • Passive - Intervenes only after standards have not been met or

    • problems have arisen


Nonleadership factor
Nonleadership Factor of organizations

Laissez-Faire

The absence of leadership. A hands-off, let-things-ride approach. Refers to a leader who abdicates responsibility, delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs.


Transformational leadership approach

TLs empower and nurture followers of organizations

TLs stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers

TLs commonly create a vision

TLs act as change agents

TLs are social architects

Describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and carry out significant changes in organizations

Transformational Leadership Approach

Focus of Transformational Leaders

Overall Scope


Strengths5
Strengths of organizations

  • Broadly researched.TL has been widely researched, including a large body of qualitative research centering on prominent leaders and CEOs in major firms.

  • Intuitive appeal.People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to them.

  • Process-focused.TL treats leadership as a process occurring between followers and leaders.

  • Expansive leadership view.TL provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models.

  • Emphasizes follower.TL emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and morals.

  • Effectiveness.Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of leadership.


Criticisms5
Criticisms of organizations

  • Lacks conceptual clarity

    • Dimensions are not clearly delimited

    • Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership

  • Measurement questioned

    • Validity of MLQ not fully established

    • Some transformational factors are not unique solely to the transformational model

  • TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a behavior that can be taught

  • TL is elitist and antidemocratic

  • Suffers from heroic leadership bias

  • TL is based primarily on qualitative data

  • Has the potential to be abused


Application3

Provides a general way of thinking about leadership that stresses ideals, inspiration, innovations, and individual concerns

Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization

Able to positively impact a firm’s performance

May be used as a tool in recruitment, selection, promotion, and training development

Can be used to improve team development, decision-making groups, quality initiatives, and reorganizations

The MLQ helps leaders to target areas of leadership improvement

Application


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