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Please read the instructions before you start the PPT. DON’T’S Don’t have text in paragraphs and don’t fill the slide only with text. Have a mix of both pics and text in each slide Don’t add more then two subtopics in one slide

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please read the instructions before you start the ppt
Please read the instructions before you start the PPT
  • DON’T’S
  • Don’t have text in paragraphs and don’t fill the slide only with text. Have a mix of both pics and text in each slide
  • Don’t add more then two subtopics in one slide
  • Do not use different fonts and text size. Maintain the standard fonts
  • Don’t deviate from the topic
  • Don’t add pics from the restricted sites
  • DO’s
  • Brevity in usage of text: Restrict text to bullet points or keyword-headings in slide areas. If you need to describe anything using sentences, the best place for that would be the ‘notes’ section of each slide.
  • Follow a structure of objectives-introduction-main explanation-conclusion
  • Add a work sheet to every topic you make, put it at the end of your slide show
  • Be as specific as possible about defining your topic. For instance, take the topic of interest (math). This is a broad heading and can include just the concept OR the application of the concept OR even an advanced sub topic. Ensure the title of your topic gives as specific a snapshot as possible.
  • Add a youtube video, topic specific.
  • Use more pics downloaded from wikipedia
  • Add more slides if required
module objectives
Module Objectives
  • Recap – How elements are classified and arranged into periodic tables.
  • Non-metals examples
  • List out the physical properties of non-metals
  • Write the chemical properties of non-metals
  • Distinguish between metals and non-metals
  • Study of two important non-metals – 1. Phosphorous 2. Sulphur, which are used widely.
  • Essential nutrient and components of bones, teeth, gums and blood of animal body.
  • Necessary for the growth of the plant and to carry out photosynthesis in plants
  • It is the second element of 15th group in periodic table
  • SYMBOL – P
  • ATOMIC NO. – 15
  • MASS NO. – 31
  • Electronic Configuration – 1s2,2s2,2P6, 3S2,3P3
phosphorous occurrence
Phosphorous - Occurrence
  • Highly active element
  • Does not occur freely in nature
  • Widely distributed in nature in phosphate rocks
  • It is main component of bone. So, it occurs in bone ash in the form of calcium phosphate
  • Important minerals of Phosphorous.
    • Note – Apatite is also known as Fluorapatite
phosphorous extraction
Phosphorous - Extraction
  • Extracted by heating bone ash or rock phosphate
  • Mixture of finely powdered rock phosphate, sand (silica) and coke are introduced in electric furnace
  • An electric arc struck between the electrodes produces high temperature
  • Phosphorous pentoxide is formed by the reaction of rock phosphate and sand (silica)
allotrophic forms of phosphorous
Allotrophicforms of Phosphorous
  • Like carbon, phosphorous also exhibits allotropy.
  • Two allotropic forms are white phosphorous and red phosphorous
  • White phosphorous is obtained by rapid cooling of phosphorous vapour.
  • Red phosphorous is prepared by heating white phosphorous to about 2500C along with inert gases
allotrophic forms of phosphorous contd
Allotrophicforms of Phosphorouscontd.
  • When white phosphorous is exposed to air at about 300C, it reacts with oxygen and fumes
  • But, it does not react with water
  • So this highly reactive element is stored under water
  • White phosphorous undergoes spontaneous slow oxidation in air
  • This oxidation is visible like a greenish glow in the dark. This phenomenon is known as Phosphorescence.
phosphorous chemical properties action with air oxygen
Phosphorous – ChemicalpropertiesAction with AIR / OXYGEN
  • Phosphorous trioxide is formed when phosphorous is burnt in a limited supply of air.
  • Phosphorous pentoxide is formed when phosphorous is burnt in excess of air.
phosphorous chemical properties action with chlorine
Phosphorous – ChemicalpropertiesAction withChlorine
  • Phosphorous trichloride is formed when the supply of chlorine is limited.
  • Phosphorous pentachloride is formed with excess amount of chlorine
phosphorous chemical properties action with alkalis
Phosphorous – ChemicalpropertiesAction with Alkalis
  • Phosphine is formed when phosphorous is boiled with Sodium hydroxide
  • Phosphine is a colorless gas with an unpleasant odour. It is highly poisonous
  • Oxides of phosphorous are acidic in nature. They form oxyacids when they disolve in water.
  • Important oxyacids are:
    • Orthophosphoric acid – H3PO4
    • Metaphosphoric acid – HPO3
    • Pyrophosphoric acid – H4P2O7
uses of phosphorous
Uses of Phosphorous
  • Red Phosphorous is used widely in the manufacture of safety matches
  • White phosphorous is used in bullets and in incendiary bombs
    • It is used to make phosphorous bronze
    • Phosphorous is used in rat poison
    • It is widely used in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers
phosphorous fertilizers
  • Essential for the growth of plants
  • Needed to carry out photosynthesis and to give high yield
  • Plants absorb phosphorous in the form of water soluble compunds
  • Leaves turn yellow when they do not get phosphorous in the required quantity
  • So, it is necessary to add phosphorous in the form of chemical fertilizer to soil
preparation of super phosphate
Preparation of Super Phosphate
  • Manufactured by treating the water insoluble phosphate rock with a specific amount of concentrated sulphuric acid
  • Mixture of Calcium sulphate and calcium dihydrogen phosphate is obtained. This mixture is called super phosphate
  • Element sulphur has been known from ancient times as Brimstone which means Burning Stone
  • Brimstone means burning stone.
  • Sulphur is used in the treatment of skin diseases and as a fumigant since ancient times.
  • Symbol – S
  • Atomic No. – 16
  • Atomic Mass – 32
  • Electronic configuration – 1S2, 2S2, 2P6, 3S2, 3P4
  • Sulphur is second element of 16th group in the periodic table
  • Due to its incompletely filled outer orbit (3S2, 3P4) it readily combines with other elements forming covalent and ionic bonds.
occurrence of sulphur
Occurrence of Sulphur
  • Sulphur is highly reactive element.
  • Occurs in free state and more abundantly as a compound.
  • It occurs in free state as vapour in volcanic eruption
  • Main Sulphur ores
    • Galena – PbS
    • Cinnabar – HgS
    • Zinc blende – ZnS
    • Gypsum – CaSO42H2O
extraction of sulphur
Extraction of Sulphur
  • Sulphur is obtained from underground deposits by Frasch process
  • Method is based on the relatively low melting point of sulphur (1190C)
  • Sulphur deposits occur at a depth of about 230 to 400 metres.
extraction of sulphur1
Extraction of Sulphur
  • Concentric pipes are sunk from the surface to the sulphur deposits
  • Super heated water at 1700 – 1800C is sent through the outer most pipes
  • Same time, hot compressed air is forced down through the central pipe
  • Hot water melts sulphur
  • Foam is produced which it mixes with hot air
  • Foam is brought up to the surface by middle pipes by the action air blast
  • Sulphur obtained is about 99.5% pure.
allotropic form of sulphur
Allotropicform of Sulphur
  • Exhibits allotropy like carbon and phosphorus
  • Allotropes of sulphur are Rhombic sulphur, monoclinic sulphur and plastic sulphur
rhombic sulphur
  • Powdered Sulphur is dissolved in carbon disulphide to make a saturated solution.
  • It is allowed to evaporate slowly
  • Yellow crystals of rhombic sulphur are obtained
  • Eight atoms are arranged in octahedral shape
  • Hence, it is also called as Octahedral sulphur
monoclinic sulphur
  • Monoclinic Sulphur which is also known as Prismatic Sulphur or beta-Sulphur, is a yellow crystalline solid
  • Take sulphur in China dish and melt it slowly at 1250C
  • Allow liquid to cool slowly until a crust is formed at the surface
  • Break the crust and pour the liquid only
  • Observe crystals of needle-shaped monoclinic sulphur sticking to the sides of dish. This is called Prismatic sulphur
  • Rhombic sulphur is stable below 950C while monoclinic is stable above 95.50C
  • When Rhombic sulphur is heated above 95.50C monoclinic sulphur is formed
plastic sulphur
Plastic Sulphur
  • Melt sulphur in china dish and molten Sulphur is poured in cold water
  • Soft rubber like mass is obtained
  • Dark-brown elastic solid is called Plastic sulphur
effects of heat on sulphur
Effects of heat on Sulphur
  • When Sulphur is heated above 1150C it melts and a pale-yellow liquid is obtained
  • At 1800C the liquid becomes dark brown and viscous and does not flow
  • Ring structure is changed into open chain
  • High temperature the chain breaks down
  • At about 4350CSulphur boils and its vapour is formed
chemical properties
  • Sulphur burns within limited supply of air with a blue flame to give sulphur dioxide along with small quantity of sulphur trioxide
  • Sulphuric acid is formed when sulphur trioxide dissolves in water
reaction with non metals
  • Sulphur forms sulphides with other non-metals
  • When sulphurvapour is passed through red-hot coke, carbon disulphide is formed

C + 2S  CS2

  • When hydrogen gas is passed through molten sulphur, hydrogen sulphide is formed

H2 + S  H2S

            • When sulphur reacts with concentrated nitric acid, sulphuric acid is formed

S + 6HNO3 H2SO4 + 6NO2 + 2H2O

uses of sulphur
Uses of Sulphur
  • Sulphuris mainly used for the manufacture of Sulphuric Acid
  • It is good disinfectant and used in manufacture of skin ointments
  • Vapours of lime and sulphur are used as insecticides
  • Sulphur is the main component of gunpowder and explosives
  • Used for vulcanising natural rubber
  • Natural rubber is a polymer of long chain hydrocarbon
  • Becomes sticky when heated and brittle when cooled
  • Because of its elasticity, it is not possible to give definite shape to rubber
  • When sulphur is added in a definite proportion to the natural rubber, it becomes hard and gets all the desirable properties
  • It is easy to give it any definite shape
  • Production and regulation of fire changed the life of ancient man remarkably.
  • Early man found that he could keep himself warm with fire, cook food to make it more tasty
  • He used fire to extract metals, to make bricks etc.
  • Hence, Use of fire has played a vital role in the development of civilisation
  • Combustion is a type of chemical change
  • Even today, man depends upon combustion to meet his major energy requirements
what is combustion
Whatis Combustion?
  • When substances (mainly fuels) react with oxidizing agents like oxygen, produce energy in the form of heat and light, this process is called Combustion
  • Combustion is a type of chemical change in which energy is liberated and new substances are formed
types of combustion
Types of Combustion
  • Crackers undergo combustion very quickly liberating enormous amount of energy in the form of light and heat. This is know as explosion

Note the following chemical reactions

  • Rusting of iron, that is action of moist air with iron to produce iron oxide
  • Oxidation of glucose by oxygen in our body.
  • Above said reactions are examples of Combustion which take place very slowly
calorific value
Calorific Value
  • Earlier, heat energy was measured in calories.
  • Now, heat energy can be converted into mechanical energy
  • Hence, heat energy is also expressed in Joules
carbonic fuels
Carbonic Fuels
  • Carbonic fuels are the main sources of energy
  • Coal and petroleum are main carbon fuels
carbonic fuels petroleum
Carbonic Fuels - Petroleum
  • Petroleum is a complex mixture of many saturated hydrocarbons
  • These hydrocarbons have carbon atoms ranging from 4 to 50
  • Crude oil and natural gas mixture are obtained from the mines
  • After separating natural gas the crude oil mixture is subjected to fractional distillation to separate different fractions
  • Petroleum fuels are non-renewable sources of energy
  • They were formed over the cours of millions of years in the earth’s crust
  • Petroleum is important source of energy
  • Technology of utilising alternate economical sources of energy has not yet been developed
combustion and air pollution
Combustion and air pollution
  • Atmosphere is the thin blanket of air around the earth
  • It sustains life on the earth
  • Major components of pure air are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, rare gases and traces of water vapour
  • Air is polluted when unwanted substances enter into the atmosphere and cause ill effect on Biotic and Aboitic environment
  • Air pollution is principally caused by gases produced combusion
effect of air pollution on biotic and abiotic environment
Effect of air pollution on Biotic and Abioticenvironment
  • Carbon dioxide
    • Even though carbon dioxide is an essential component of air, if the percentage of the gas increases above a certain limit, it causes pollution.
    • When the percentage of carbon dioxide increases, it checks the heat radiations produced by Earth which results in increase of global temperature
  • Carbon monoxide
    • Produced by the partial combustion of carbon fuel
    • On inhaling air containing carbon monoxide, it combines with hemoglobin of red blood corpuscles forming carbon-hemoglobin. Then it reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood
  • Hydrocarbons
    • 55% of the hydrocarbons present in the atmosphere are formed due to incomplete combustion of petroleum fuels
    • Responsible for the smog formation in atmosphere
what is acid rain
  • Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphur
    • Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur are produced by the combustion of petroleum products and coal which cause Acid Rain
  • Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen combine with the water vapour in the atmosphere to form sulphuric acid and nitric acid
  • These acids precipitations dissolve in rain water known as Acid Rain
  • Acid rain causes extensive damage to stone buildings and sculpture of marbles, limestone, etc
  • Stones become pitted and weaken mechanically.
lead other pollutants
Lead & otherpollutants
  • Lead is added to petrol in the form of tetra ethyle lead for the efficient working of engines
  • It comes out of the engine along with exhaust gases
  • Lead causes brain disorder in human beings

Other pollutants

  • Dust and carbon particles produced due to incomplete combustion and fly ash are also responsible for air pollution
  • They affect the health of living beings
  • They spoil the beauty of buildings
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