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Nutrition Myths and the Truth about Carbohydrates
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  1. Nutrition Myths and the Truth about Carbohydrates By: Kirk Vidrine

  2. Kirk Vidrine • Master’s Degree Human Nutrition • Dr. Mike Keenan • Resistant Starch • Sodium Butyrate • Body Fat • Fitness Professional • 10 years • Spectrum Fitness • Complete fitness • Everyday Nutrition

  3. The Problem

  4. The Problem Obesity has a strong correlated to high mortality diseases Estimated 325,000 deaths annually Direct health care cost of $78 billion dollars annually Over 9% of total health care cost

  5. Diets to the Rescue

  6. Myth 1:The hCG Diet hCG is the pregnancy hormone British endocrinologist Albert T. W. Simeons' Theory: hCG increases weight loss, spares protein and reduces hunger

  7. hCG Diet Problem 1: lack of evidence 1 study in the 70's showed results Protocol for most studies is a 500 kcal/day with hCG injections Every study since has shown no results No significant research since the late 90's

  8. hCG Diet Bottom line hCG has no effect on weight loss or appetite suppression hCG diet weight loss is due to starvation and placebo effects

  9. Myth 2: Skipping meals is the best method to lose weight Theory: Reducing meals should lower calories and lead to weight loss

  10. Myth 2: Skipping meals is the best method to lose weight Problem 1: Metabolism slow down The Horse and Bear theory

  11. Myth 2: Skipping meals is the best method to lose weight Problem 2: Rebound overconsumption Skipping meals increases hunger hormones Skipping meals may lead to compensation eating and weight gain

  12. Myth 2: Skipping meals is the best method to lose weight Bottom line Skipping meals reduces your metabolism and leads to overeating Small, frequent meals improves food choices and fat loss Try to eat 4-5 times a day

  13. Myth 3:You should not eat after you workout Theory: If you don't eat after working out your body will continue to burn extra body fat

  14. Myth 3:You should not eat after you workout Problem 1: Muscle and metabolism loss Exercise causes Glucose loss & muscle damage Not eating after working out may impair muscle development

  15. Myth 3:You should not eat after you workout Window of muscle opportunity • 3-6 hours post workout • Carbohydrates 20-40 grams • Protein 20 grams Muscles increase metabolism 70% of your calorie output happens outside the gym.

  16. Myth 3:You should not eat after you workout Bottom line Eating within 3 hours after you workout • Improves muscle recovery • Improves muscle performance • May improve long term fat loss

  17. Myth 4:If you don't eat fat, you can't get fat. • Theory: • Carbohydrates are for energy • Protein is for muscle • Fat is for fat • Therefore if you don't eat fat, you can't get fat

  18. Myth 4:If you don't eat fat, you can't get fat. • Problem 1: Fat is essential • Dietary fat is necessary for biological functions • Essential fatty acids can't be made within the body • Some fats have shown health and body fat benefits • Olive oil • Fish oil • Nuts and seeds

  19. Myth 4:If you don't eat fat, you can't get fat. Problem 2: the 80's Fat gram = 9 calories Carbohydrate and Protein grams = 4 calories Low fat = low calories = weight loss Walter Willett study Dietary fat % decreased Calorie intake and body weight increased

  20. Myth 4:If you don't eat fat, you can't get fat. Problem 3: built to be fat Starvation has been a major problem throughout history Body fat is a safety mechanism

  21. Myth 4:If you don't eat fat, you can't get fat. • Bottom line • Fat is a necessary health nutrient with health benefits • Any Nutrient which contains calories can be converted onto body fat • Try to consume health fats such as olive oil, fish oil and nuts or seeds

  22. Myth 5:More Protein = Larger Muscles • Theory : • Muscle is made from protein, therefore • The more protein you eat the larger you muscles will grow

  23. Myth 5:More Protein = Larger Muscle • Lemon's study • Assessed nitrogen balance of new exercisers with low (0.8 g/kg) to moderate (1.6 - 1.8 g/kg) protein intakes • Exercisers with moderate protein intakes had a positive nitrogen balance • Exercisers with low protein intakes had a negative nitrogen balance • Study suggests increased protein intake is needed for muscle development

  24. Myth 5:More Protein = Larger Muscles • Many more studies • Assessed protein balance of exercisers with : • Low (0.66 g/kg - 0.8g / kg) • Moderate (1.4 - 2.4 g/kg) • High protein (2.8 - 3.6 kg/kg) • Similar findings as lemon, but.... • Higher protein diets showed no greater benefits

  25. Myth 5:More Protein = Larger Muscles • If muscle is made from protein, then why doesn't the body create more muscle with extra protein intake? • The body tries to be energy conservative • Muscle is energy expensive • Many protein sources are high in saturated fats

  26. Myth 5:More Protein = Larger Muscles • Bottom Line • Calories and protein are required for muscle repair and growth • Moderate intakes of protein helps muscle development in short term trials • Excessive protein intake is unnecessary for stimulating muscle developement

  27. Carbohydrates Bad reputation, good reason Blood Glucose, Insulin & Glucagon Glucagon Insulin Forget to eat Eat

  28. Carbohydrates When insulin is high, fat building is high When glucagon is high, fat "burning" is high Carbohydrates increase blood glucose levels

  29. Skinny Countries

  30. Results

  31. What really works Dena (2003) JAMA 107 articles 3,268 participants No difference with Carbohydrate intake Major difference Starting weight Total calories Total time on diet

  32. Carbohydrates Fat metabolism is dynamic Net body fat levels Weird fact : protein has a larger gram for gram insulin secretion rate than carbohydrates

  33. Good Carbohydrates? High quality carbohydrates have shown health benefits: Cancer prevention (particularly colon) Cardiovascular health Weight/fat loss Fruits Vegetables Whole grain, high fiber starches Beans and legumes Sweet potatoes or yams

  34. Good Carbohydrates?

  35. High Carbohydrate User Clearance Bass Lawyer Bodybuilder Fitness author Carbohydrate advocate

  36. Review Stay away from hCG Eat small frequent meals throughout the day Eat within 3 hours after exercising Excessive intakes of protein are unnecessary for muscle development Any macronutrient can increase or decrease body fat, the key is to eat healthy foods choices

  37. Questions