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What are proteins??? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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What are proteins???. Hair Fur Muscles Chemical messengers between cells And more…. Most diverse functions of any of the macromolecules we have discussed!!!. PROTEIN : a POLYMER constructed from a set of just 20 kinds of monomers called AMINO ACIDS.

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what are proteins
What are proteins???
  • Hair
  • Fur
  • Muscles
  • Chemical messengers between cells
  • And more….
  • Most diverse functions of any of the macromolecules we have discussed!!!
slide4

AMINO ACID: consists of a CENTRAL CARBON ATOM bonded to FOUR PARTNERS. THREE of these partners ARE always THE SAME.

  • The side group or FOURTH PARTNER is different.
slide5

Proteins must be PRECISELY TWISTED, FOLDED, and COILED into a UNIQUE SHAPE in order to work.

(Ball of yarn vs. a sweater, same material different functions)

  • DENATURATION: change in temperature, pH, or some other quality of the environment that CAUSES A PROTEINTO UNRAVEL and LOSE ITS NORMAL SHAPE.

EXAMPLE

Cooking an egg: the egg white changes from a clear liquid to a white solid during cooking because heat denatures the egg’s proteins.

protein functions

PROTEIN FUNCTIONS

  • Used in BODY STRUCTURES

Examples: hair, fingernails, muscle fibers

  • Responsible for TRANSPORT

Example: Hemoglobin, a protein, transports O2 in the blood

  • FIGHT DISEASE

Example: Antibodies are proteins that attach to foreign molecules to provoke immune response

  • CHEMICAL MESSENGERS

Example: Insulin, a hormone, regulates the level of glucose in your blood

  • ENZYMEScontrol reaction rates

PROTEIN FUNCTIONS

nucleic acids

NUCLEIC ACID: large nitrogen-containing polymers found mainly in the nuclei of cells.

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA): POLYMER built from monomers called NUCLEOTIDES and contains the sugar deoxyribose.

(There are only four nucleotides that make up DNA: A, T, C, and G.)

NUCLEIC ACIDS

NUCLEOTIDE

nucleic acids1
NUCLEIC ACIDS
      • DNA Stores HEREDITARY INFORMATION
      • CONTROLS ACTIVITIES of cells (tells the cell what proteins to build)

RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA): POLYMER built from monomers called NUCLEOTIDES and contains the sugar ribose.

  • Works with DNA to BUILD PROTEINS