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  1. starter activity If you remember my love in your prayers as strongly as I adore you, I shall hardly be forgotten, for I am yours. Henry R forever By daily proof you shall find To be to you both loving and kind AN What do these words, written in the margins of a prayer book as they worshipped together during morning Mass in around 1527 reveal about Henry’s relationship to Ann?

  2. Key words: annulment canon law consanguinity Why did Henry ditch Catherine?  Learning objectives TBAT identify & evaluate reasons for H8’s annulment from CoA

  3. There is much controversy over the reasons for the King’s decision to divorce Catherine and marry Anne. Read this biography of Anne from the BBC website & decide whether the author thinks Henry or Anne was to blame or there were other reasons.

  4.  Your task • Read p.83-4 including sources A-C. • Under the headings ‘Religious reasons for annulment’ note down reasons why Henry wanted a divorce • Note down the problems with his arguments • From Source A, what impression do you gain of Henry’s relationship to Catherine?

  5. Religious reasons for annulment • Henry expected papal approval • Leviticus supported his claims: ‘thou shall not uncover the nakedness of thy brother’s wife…they shall be childless’ • Childless could be translated as ‘without sons’ • Henry claimed Catherine has consummated marriage to Arthur – consanguinity issues • However, Deuteronomy undermined his claims: “his brother shall take her and raise up seed for his (dead) brother”

  6. Read Anne’s letter to Henry dated 1526 (Source D, p.85)– Henry was still married to Catherine. Was she teasing Henry or trying to put him off? Who was to blame for fanning the flames of desire?

  7.  Your task Read p.85-6 including the text boxes. Under the heading, ‘Other reasons for the annulment’ take notes on the reasons why Henry wanted to divorce Catherine. How valuable are the love letters between Henry and Anne as a source of information on the motivations for the annulment?

  8. Other reasons for the annulment Infatuation – Catherine was 6 years H8’s senior Concerns over the succession Fear of return to chaos of Wars of Roses Unwillingness to endorse a female ruler Henry had already produced illegitimate male heir (Henry Fitzroy) Precedents for papal annulments, e.g. Louis XII and Anne of Britanny; Margaret of Scotland

  9.  Your task Study the sources provided by your teacher from ‘The Early Tudors’ (David Rogerson et al). Study them carefully and decide what motives they give for the annulment. Which sources agree and which disagree? To what extent was the pope to blame? Look at Source 9c for ideas

  10.  Extension task • Watch ‘The Last Days of Anne Boleyn’ (BBC, 2013) and write a review explaining the different views of Anne’s personality and motives proposed by the different historians including Dr Susannah Lipscombe & David Starkey

  11. This house believes ‘Love’ was the real reason Henry wanted a divorce

  12. Key words: annulment canon law consanguinity Why did Henry ditch Catherine?  Learning objectives TBAT identify & evaluate reasons for H8’s annulment from CoA