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Chapter 10 Beliefs. Why to have religion?. Religions. Offer a way to rejoice, to give thanks Provide comfort, a community, a moral code, traditions Give to the needy. Religions. The Golden Rule: to treat the others the way you want to be treated

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  • Offer a way to rejoice, to give thanks
  • Provide comfort, a community, a moral code, traditions
  • Give to the needy
  • The Golden Rule: to treat the others the way you want to be treated
  • Believe in a supreme power: monotheism, polytheism, spirits, ghosts, goddesses, nature
the catholic faith in jesus
The Catholic Faith in Jesus
  • Half of the world’s Christians
  • Infants are baptised shortly after birth
  • Coming-of-age ceremony at ages 13-15
  • Priests and bishop officiate
  • Christ’s teachings in the Bible’s New Testament
the catholic faith in jesus1
The Catholic Faith in Jesus
  • “Sign of the Cross”—the Holy Trinity
  • Father—God, Son—Jesus, Holy Spirit—presence of God
  • Eucharist—sacred ritual of Holy Communication — Lord’s Supper
  • Visual churches
the catholic faith in jesus2
The Catholic Faith in Jesus
  • To worship Jesus with all 5 of their senses
  • Music for the ears,
  • Incense for the nose,
  • Statues and art for the eyes,
  • Little old ladies reach out and touch something; the beads
  • To worship Jesus through the taste in communion
  • Each denomination (church group) worships differently
  • Some—confirmations at ages 13-15
  • Some baptise infants to wash away old sin
  • Roger Williams—Baptist Church, 1638
the protestant reformation
The Protestant Reformation
  • Nearly 16 centuries of unbroken Catholic domination of Christianity, the then wealthiest and most powerful institution on earth
  • 1302, a formal decree—no salvation outside the Roman Catholic Church
  • The Pope—ultimate truth and power, religious or political
background serious problems
BackgroundSerious problems
  • Turmoil within the Church
  • Moving from Rome to Avignon, France
  • New papal tower constructed—symbol of the enormous power of papacy
  • Fondness of richness and treasure—corruption of the papal core
background serious problems1
BackgroundSerious problems
  • People being disturbed
  • Violent war between France & England (over a century)
  • 1347, a massive outbreak of the black plague—25 million Europeans, 4 years
background serious problems2
BackgroundSerious problems
  • In Rome, a second Pope elected
  • 31 years of battle for control of the church
  • A third Pope—1409-1415
  • The situation eventually resolved
background damage
  • Who to believe?
  • Arrogance & corruption instead of truth & goodness
  • Need of reform
  • Risks of “heresy”: being put on trial or burned at a stake, eg. Johaness Hus: Czechoslovakia
the reformer
The Reformer
  • Martin Luther: Germany
  • Strong religious and political belief
  • The discovery of Christopher Columbus
  • The mass production of books
the reformer1
The Reformer
  • October 31st, 1517, to post a list of 95 criticisms, protesting the sale of indulgences
  • An indulgence: a spiritual favor granted by the church to sinners
  • By making difficult spiritual sacrifices
  • Important source of income for the church
the reformer2
The Reformer
  • Faith in Bible alone
  • Refusal to yield to the Pope
  • 3 revolutionary books sold in Germany
  • January 3rd, 1521, banished from Church
  • Translation of the Bible into German
the reformer3
The Reformer
  • John Calvin: predestination (Switzerland)
  • A terrible example of the majesty of God
  • To work hard and be thrifty
  • Capitalism flourished
  • A special police force to maintain public morality
  • Burning heretics
the reformer4
The Reformer
  • Henry VIII: divorce (England)
  • The Pope’s refusal to grant him annulment
  • The enraged king—Act of Supremacy, supreme head of the Church of England
  • Six wives
  • The Roman Church’s control of land and demand of more money from Henry VIII
  • Dissolution of monasteries
the reformer5
The Reformer
  • After his death
  • The Common Prayer, Sacraments
  • 42 articles
  • Mary I
  • Elizabeth I
  • Orthos: "right“; doxa: "belief"
  • Different in the way of life and worship
  • Maintaining the correct form of worshiping God, passed on from the very beginnings of Christianity
  • Ancient Jewish translation into Greek called the Septuagint
  • It does not have
  • a single founder,
  • a specific theological system,
  • a single system of morality,
  • or a central religious organization. 
  • It consists of "thousands of different religious groups that have evolved in India since 1500 BCE."
  • Henotheistic: a single deity, & other Gods and Goddesses as manifestations or aspects of that supreme God
  • 4000 years ago, Abraham (Iraq)
  • Abraham’s great-grandson: Yehuda, or Judah (Hebrew: priest)
  • Rabbi & cantor: coming of age ceremony
  • The Torah (the Hebrew scriptures) scrolls
  • The Exodus from Egypt
  • Holidays
  • Rosh Hashana—Jewish New Year
  • Yom Kippur—Day of Atonement
  • Hanukkah—Festival of Lights
  • Jewish Golden Rule:
  • “What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellowman.”
  • Torah, Shabbat, 3id
  • Prophets:
  • Abraham, Moses, Noah, Jesus, Muhammed (the final messenger of God)
  • Islam: submission to God
  • Muslims, Christians, Jews: same God
  • Islam & terrorism—Jihad
  • Salaama: Arabic for peace
  • Qur’an—Koran (the exact word of God)
  • Various cultural practices
  • Women and the head scarf
  • Friday: the religious day
  • Praying 5 times a day, facing Mecca (Saudi Arabia)
  • Coming of age:
  • Boys: 15, praying
  • Girls: 9, scarf and long sleeves?
  • Allah/God
  • Ramadan (fasting)
  • Imam (supreme leader, prayer leader)
the five pillars of islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Shahadah: pledge of faith
  • Salah: daily prayers
  • Sawm: fasting
  • Zakah: giving
  • Hajj: pilgrimage (millions of Muslims)
muslim golden rule
Muslim Golden Rule
  • “Love for others what you love for yourself and dislike for others what you dislike for yourself.”
  • Muhammed (Hadith)
  • Hadith, the report of the sayings, deeds and approvals of the Prophet Muhammad
  • An Indian religion combining Islamic and Hindu elements
  • Punjab, late 15th century, by Guru Nanak
  • Nanak: the first of the Ten Gurus, of whom Sikhs consider themselves disciples
  • One God for all people of all religions, full equality of all people, of men and women
  • Living a virtuous and truthful life
  • Condemnation of blind rituals such as fasting, visiting places of pilgrimage, superstitions, worship of the dead, idol worship etc.
  • An atheist believes there is no god or gods.
  • An Agnostic believes it cannot be known if a god or gods exist.
  • Moral code of behavior
  • Life’s meaning
  • A more relaxed and natural way of finding happiness
  • 300BC
  • Tao: a silent, pure, all powerful force that existed before there is heaven or earth
  • Living in harmony with nature
  • Secularisation: ornate shrines, brilliantly-colored statues, offering
  • Chinese folk gods
  • Public rituals
  • Immortality
lao tzu
Lao Tzu
  • Contrastive unification mutually convertible
  • Good Fotune Lieth Within Bad, Bad Fortune Lurketh With Good.
  • A small country with a small population
  • Daodejing/Tao Te Ching—Classic of the Way and Its Power
chuang tzu
Chuang Tzu
  • The all-in-one idea—Tao as the root and basis for all existence and transformation
  • Spiritual freedom—I’d rather be dragging my tail in the mud.
  • Zhuang Zi/Chuang Tzu (Nanhuajing)—
  • Neipian (Inner Chapters)
  • Waipian (Outer Chapters)
  • Zapian (Miscellaneous Chapters)
http www theodora com wfb china people html
  • Fangxian Tao—Alchemy and Immortals
  • Huanglao Tao—Reigns of Wen and Jing (the Western Han Dynasty)
  • Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) and Lao Zi
  • Wudoumi Tao (Zhengyi Tao orTianshi Tao) and Taiping Tao
  • Five Decaliter of Rice Sect & Peace Sect: immortality, spells
http www theodora com wfb china people html1
  • Quanzhen Tao—Baiyun Temple
  • 王嚞张三丰
  • 马钰、谭处端、刘处玄、丘处机 (The Great Master“大宗师” "活神仙")、王处一、郝大通、孙不二(The Taoist Holy Man“真人”)
  • Wang Chongyang—the theory of the three religions of the same origin; to cultivate oneself
  • Sakyamuni—Siddhartha Gautama, born on April 8, 464BC, a Hindu prince in India, in search of wisdom through poverty and meditation
  • Buddha (sanscrit: the enlightened one)
  • Buddhism—A religion, a discipline, a practice
  • Suffering
  • Craving
  • Dharma
  • Karma
  • Reincarnation
  • Mahayana Buddhism and Hinayana Buddhism (大、小乘 )
  • social concern and universal salvation (Japan, Korea, Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, and China): one for all; heal the world
  • the non-theistic ideal of self-purification to nirvana (Sri Lanka, Burma, China, and Cambodia): all for one; all by myself
  • Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism (显宗、密宗)
  • Exoteric Buddhism educates all beings with simple and easily understood doctrine.
  • Esoteric Buddhism expounds Buddhist dharma by means of oral transmission.
  • Ppt, Word files, spoken lectures (eg. I Have A Dream): exoteric or esoteric?
  • Huineng (638-713), the founder of southern school of Zen— The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch
  • intuitive insight instead of hard work and the acquisition of even more knowledge and scriptures, wisdom and understanding beyond mere logic and reasoning
  • Holding a flower
  • 如是我闻:世尊在灵山会上,拈花示众,是时众皆默然,唯迦叶尊者破颜微笑。世尊曰:“吾有正法眼藏,涅盘妙心,实相无相,微妙法门,不立文字,教外别传,付嘱摩诃迦叶。
  • Neither the wind nor the banner is moving.
  • It is like a man drinking water and knowing whether it is cold or warm.
To see a World in a Grain of Sand
  • And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
  • Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand
  • And Eternity in an hour.
  • Auguries of Innocence——William Blake (1757-1827) British poet
  • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell:
  • “ If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite.”
  • 《六祖坛经》: “即时豁然,还得本心”
The spring flowers, the autumn moon;
  • Summer breezes, winter snow.
  • If useless things do not clutter your mind,
  • You have the best days of your life.
  • 一沙一天国;
  • 君掌盛无边,
  • 刹那含永劫。
  • (李叔同)宗白华
  • (BBC quizzes)
  • (Teddy bear game)