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Cultural Beliefs: Chapter 4. Samuel R. Mathews, Ph.D. Dept. of Psychology University of West Florida. Culture : . customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of : racial, religious, or other social group ; characteristics features of everyday existence;

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cultural beliefs chapter 4

Cultural Beliefs: Chapter 4

Samuel R. Mathews, Ph.D.

Dept. of Psychology

University of West Florida

culture
Culture:
  • customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of :
    • racial,
    • religious, or
    • other social group;
  • characteristics features of everyday existence;
  • set of shared values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, group, or organization
culture and adolescence
Culture and Adolescence
  • Developmental periods/stages are constructed within a culturally specific context
  • Defines rules, responsibilities, benefits, and structures appropriate to the period of time we call adolescence
  • Adolescence, for many cultures reflects a coming of age
    • Provides specific rituals or rites of passage and specific practices in preparation for adult responsibilities and privileges
cultural beliefs
Cultural Beliefs
  • Norms, values, standards, and expectations a culture has generated for its participants
  • In general, adolescents are unique in that their own values are moving toward those of adults in the culture
  • Intergenerational transmission of beliefs about roles form coherence of society
  • Changes in beliefs due to historical and individual events form basis for cultural evolution (e.g. Bandura)
socialization bringing individuals into the culture
Socialization: Bringing Individuals into the Culture
  • Selfregulation—managing one’s behavior in a culturally appropriate way
  • Rolepreparation—learning the prerequisites for assuming one or more roles as defined by cultural beliefs
  • Sources of meaning—understanding the essence of human existence (mortality, evil/good, etc)
socialization bringing individuals into the culture6
Socialization: Bringing Individuals into the Culture
  • Socialization is grounded in: religious, political, historical, familial, and individual dispositional factors
  • Socialization is related to: age, sex/gender, social class, race, etc
  • Learning one’s appropriate place in one’s culture is based on intentional and incidental learning.
cultural values individualism collectivism
Cultural Values—Individualism/Collectivism
  • Independent self—broad socialization:
    • Focus is on being schooled to a broad set of norms within which one can choose;
    • focus is on individual choice and autonomous behavior;
    • individual success is valued over the collective’s or group’s success/values;
  • Interdependent self—narrow socialization:
    • Focus is on being schooled to conform to a single or narrow set of norms
    • Individual variability is reduced and the collective’s or group’s values are enhanced
    • Group or collective success is valued over individual success
cultural values individualism collectivism8
Cultural Values—Individualism/Collectivism
  • Individualism more linked to economic success
  • Collectivist ideals linked to other forms of wellbeing
  • There are trade offs for each pole in the continuum between individualism and collectivism
  • Within either culture there is a high degree of variability
cultural values and cultural practices
Cultural Values and Cultural Practices
  • Cultural Complexes (Practices)—the intersection between the values and practices of a culture
  • Key practices related to values
    • Dating, courtship, marriage (USA/Palau)
    • Gendered practices in employment
    • Racial/ethnic practices in employment
multicultural societies and communities
Multicultural Societies and Communities
  • Typical drift: minority cultures move toward majority culture’ values and practices
  • Models of multicultural coexistence:
    • Assimilation: minority culture relinquishes its identity as it is absorbed into the dominant culture
    • Accommodation: minority culture adopts dominant culture’s practices in interaction with dominant culture but retains its own identity when operating independently of the dominant culture
    • Pluralism: each culture maintains its own practices and identities with cooperative and interdependent interactions in settings such as workplaces and schools.
culture religion and adolescence
Culture, Religion, and Adolescence
  • Religion and religious practices provide:
    • Guidelines for socialization through:
      • Self regulation
      • Role preparation
      • Sources of meaning
    • Structures for families’ activities
      • Participation in religious activities
      • Participation in rites of passage
culture religion and adolescence12
Culture, Religion, and Adolescence
  • Religion and religious practices provide:
    • Protective factors for adolescents who have families with structure and common values to guide activities
    • Confounding factors:
      • Family organization and predictability
      • Joint activities with family
      • Common values and practices
      • Positive peer affiliations
culture religion and adolescence13
Culture, Religion, and Adolescence
  • Cognitive Development and Religious Themes
    • The prediction is that as formal operations emerge, beliefs and values move from concrete ways of acting to more abstract concepts to impact source of meaning
    • Abstract and hypothetical thought can also pave the way for:
      • Questioning core beliefs
      • Identifying hypocritical actions by those in authority
      • Exploring alternative belief systems
culture moral development and adolescence
Culture, Moral Development, and Adolescence
  • Focus in theories of development of moral reasoning is on the processes and criteria used to make decisions
  • Kohlberg: Based on justice and principled behavior
    • Preconventional Reasoning
    • Conventional Reasoning
    • Postconventional Reasoning
    • Critiques tend to be focused on masculine bias and justice focus instead of focusing on relationships
culture moral development and adolescence15
Culture, Moral Development, and Adolescence
  • Gilligan: Based on an ethic of care and relationships
    • Self care
    • other care
    • Self-other care from need
    • Critiques tend to be based on a similar gender bias
  • Subsequent studies suggest that males and females vary in their use of justice and care orientations and gender rather than sex seems relevant.
culture moral development and adolescence16
Culture, Moral Development, and Adolescence
  • Shweder—cultural perspective
    • Higher level moral reasoning can occur within the context of a particular cultural norm;
    • Everyday experiences are more indicative than hypothetical cases for assessing moral development
    • Concepts of “right” and “wrong” are rooted with a cultural milieu
    • Situational ethics are based on a particular religious or traditional focus
culture moral development and adolescence17
Culture, Moral Development, and Adolescence
  • Worldview perspectives (Jensen)
    • Worldviews are lens through which we view the world and make judgments
    • Jensen’s Codes
      • Ethic of autonomy
      • Ethic of community
      • Ethic of divinity
  • WorldviewMoral ReasoningMoral EvaluationMoral BehaviorModify Worldview
culture and political thinking in adolescence
Culture and Political Thinking in Adolescence
  • Key factors in development across adolescence (Adelson’s work):
    • Cognitive development (immutable laws to a social constructivist view)
    • Movement away from authoritarian preference (consideration of interaction of individual with collective rights)
    • Ideological perspectives increase (focus on higher abstract principles)
culture and political thinking in adolescence19
Culture and Political Thinking in Adolescence
  • Political beliefs and political/civic activism
    • Adolescent disenchantment with status quo;
      • seeming unequal treatment
      • being held responsible for acting like an adult without adult privileges
    • Time of questioning (including religious, political, cultural tenets)
culture and political thinking in adolescence20
Culture and Political Thinking in Adolescence
  • Outcomes of political engagement:
    • Apathy/disengagement
    • Community Service
    • Civil disobedience
    • Civil unrest
    • Violent rebellion
      • Whether or not action is taken, it is typically a time for questioning (including religious, political, cultural tenets)
discussion questions for culture
Discussion Questions for Culture
  • Think about your position on allowing homosexual marriages the same rights and status as heterosexual marriages.
  • What sources from culture informed your position?
  • What sources from culture might have informed those who hold the opposite view?
  • What are differences and similarities in the sources of the two views and how might they be resolved?