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Learning disabilities . Ali, Brayden, Nancy . Dyslexia. Brayden’s portion. What Dyslexia Is.

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learning disabilities

Learning disabilities

Ali, Brayden, Nancy

dyslexia

Dyslexia

Brayden’s portion

what dyslexia is
What Dyslexia Is
  • Dyslexia is an often-misunderstood, confusing term for reading problems. The word dyslexia is made up of two different parts:dys meaning not or difficult, and lexia meaning words, reading, or language. So quite literally, dyslexia means difficulty with words
  • Despite the many confusions and misunderstandings, the term dyslexia is commonly used by medical personnel, researchers, and clinicians. One of the most common misunderstandings about this condition is that dyslexia is a problem of letter or word reversals (b/d, was/saw) or of letters, words, or sentences "dancing around" on the page
what cont
What Cont.
  • In fact, writing and reading letters and words backwards are common in the early stages of learning to read and write among average and dyslexic children alike, and the presence of reversals may or may not indicate an underlying reading problem. 
  • Dyslexia is a specific learning disability in reading that often affects spelling as well. In fact, reading disability is the most widely known and most carefully studied of the learning disabilities, affecting 80% of all those designated as learning disabled
slide5
Cont.
  • It is neurobiological in origin, meaning that the problem is located physically in the brain. Dyslexia is not caused by poverty, developmental delay, speech or hearing impairments, or learning a second language, although those conditions may put a child more at risk for developing a reading disability.
early detection
Early Detection
  • Children with dyslexia will often show two obvious difficulties when asked to read text at their grade level. First, they will not be able to read as many of the words in a text by sight as average readers. There will be many words on which they stumble, guess at, or attempt to "sound out." This is the problem with "fluent word recognition" identified in the previous definition.
  • Second, they will often show decoding difficulties, meaning that their attempts to identify words they do not know will produce many errors. They will not be very accurate in using letter-sound relationships in combination with context to identify unknown words.
what it is again
What it is (Again)
  • The afformentioned problems in word recognition are due to an underlying deficit in the sound component of language that makes it very difficult for readers to connect letters and sounds in order to decode. People with dyslexia often have trouble comprehending what they read because of the great difficulty they experience in accessing the printed words.
treatment or cure
Treatment Or Cure?
  • Cure? no. Dyslexia is a lifelong condition that affects people into old age. However, that does not mean that instruction cannot remediate some of the difficulties people with dyslexia have with written language. A large body of evidence shows what types of instruction struggling readers need to be successful
treatment or cure1
Treatment Or Cure?
  • Treatment: Treatment for dyslexia consists of using educational tools to enhance the ability to read. Medicines and counseling are usually not used to treat dyslexia. An important part of treatment is educating yourself about the condition. The earlier dyslexia is recognized and addressed, the better. Starting treatment when a child is young can improve reading and may even prevent reading problems in the first years of school.2 But reading will likely not ever be easy for a person with dyslexia.
  • When a child age 3 years and older has been diagnosed with dyslexia, federal law requires that public school personnel create an Individualized Education Program (IEP) that's tailored to the child's needs. The first step in developing the IEP is talking with your child's school to create a treatment team made up of you, the teacher, and other school personnel, including school counselors and special education teachers.
slide10
Cont.
  • Depending on the severity of your child's dyslexia, you may want to have a teacher's aide or tutor available to help your child with schoolwork.
  • If school staff members suggest that your child be held back a grade (grade retention), talk to your doctor or another professional about your options. Grade retention may not help your child any better than other methods.
  • Previously, it was thought that covering one eye helped children with dyslexia read better. But the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Ophthalmology found this type of treatment is ineffective because dyslexia is caused by altered brain function and not by altered visual function.4
  • It is important to know dyslexia is a lifelong condition. Even though early treatment during childhood can help, your child will likely always have to make an extra effort to read.
slide11
Cont.
  • It is important to encourage children with Dyslexia they are usually very discouraged about reading or writing.
slide14
ADHD

By: Ally Gonzalez

slide15
ADHD
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsity, or a combination. For this to be diagnosed, it must be excessive and out of normal range for a child at that age.
causes
Causes
  • ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder for children.
  • About 3-5% of school aged children are affected and is diagnosed more in boys than girls.
  • May run in families but the cause is not known. It is said that whatever causes it seems to be set in motion early on in the child's life while the brain is still developing.
  • Scans of children’s brains show that children with ADHD have brains that are different than children without.
  • Depression, lack of sleep, learning disabilities, tic disorders, and behavioral problems are associated with ADHD.
  • Most children with ADHD, have at least one other behavioral or development problem.
symptoms
Symptoms
  • The symptoms of ADHD fall into three groups:
  • Lack of attention
  • Hyperactivity
  • Impulsive disorder
  • Some children with ADHD primarily have the inattentive type whereas others may have combined types.
  • Those with inattentive type are less disruptive and are more likely to not be diagnosed with ADHD
inattentive symptoms
Inattentive symptoms
  • Fails to give close attention to details
  • Has difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play
  • Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  • Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores or duties at the workplace
  • Has difficulty organizing tasks or activities
  • Avoids or dislikes tasks that require a mental effort
  • Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books or any other tools needed for tasks or activities
  • Is easily distracted
  • Is often forgetful during activities
hyperactivity symptoms
Hyperactivity symptoms
  • Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
  • Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected
  • Runs about or climbs in appropriate situations
  • Has difficulty playing quietly
  • Is often “on the go” acts as if “driven by a motor”, talks excessivly
impulsivity symptoms
Impulsivity symptoms
  • Blurts out answers before the question has been completed
  • Has difficulty waiting their turn for something
  • Interrupts or intrudes on others
signs and tests
Signs and tests
  • On more than one occasion, children who are difficult are misdiagnosed with ADHD. While some children with ADHD go undiagnosed and are mistaken for being difficult.
  • In order for a child to be diagnosed with ADHD, specific symptoms must occur.
  • For example, children must have at least 6 attention symptoms, with some present before age 7.These symptoms must be present for at least 6 months and are not simply caused by another problem. These symptoms must be severe enough to cause major problems in several different settings.
treatment
treatment
  • Treating ADHD requires a partnership between the health care provider, parents, and the child.
  • In order for treatment to be successful it is important to: set specific goals during therapy, start medication and behavior therapy and follow up on doctors appointments.
  • If the treatment does not appear to work, the health care provider should: make sure the child does indeed have ADHD and was not simply misdiagnosed, research other medical conditions that have similar symptoms, or make sure the treatment plan is being followed.
medications
Medications
  • A combination of medications and behavioral treatment is the most successful route in treating ADHD.
  • Psychostimulants are the most commonly used prescription for treating ADHD because they calm people.
  • These drugs include: Adderall, Focalin, Dexedrine or Dextrostat, Vyvanse, Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate or Daytrana.
  • A nonstimulant drug called atomexetineworks as well but is more likely to be misused.
behavior therapy
Behavior therapy
  • Discuss therapy with the child so that they are not confused and gain control of their feelings of stress of ADHD.
  • Using rewards and treats when the child does something good will help guide their behavior.