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Learning Disabilities. TLSE 240. What do all these people have in common?. Cher Jay Leno Whoopi Goldberg Charles Schwab Greg Louganis Bruce Jenner Nelson Rockefeller. They all have or had a LEARNING DISABILITY…. IDEA Definition.

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what do all these people have in common
What do all these people have in common?
  • Cher
  • Jay Leno
  • Whoopi Goldberg
  • Charles Schwab
  • Greg Louganis
  • Bruce Jenner
  • Nelson Rockefeller
They all have or had a


idea definition
IDEA Definition
  • “ a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language… (Psychological processes are memory, perception, attention, etc.)
  • that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math calculations…”
includes conditions such as
Includes conditions such as:
  • Perceptual disabilities
  • Brain injury
  • Minimal brain dysfunction
  • Dyslexia
  • Developmental aphasia
does not include
Does not include
  • Problems primarily resulting from
    • Sensory or motor disabilities
    • Mental retardation
    • Emotional disturbance
    • Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
learning disabilities ld
Learning Disabilities (LD)
  • Most common disability among students who receive special education (50.8% of all disabilities)
  • Several kinds of specific learning disabilities exist (i.e., reading, math, writing, etc.)
  • Difficulty in learning, especially in speaking, listening, writing, reading, and mathematics
ld continued
LD continued
  • Presumed cause is central nervous system dysfunction
  • Unexpected under achievement is a common characteristic
  • Average or above average IQ
  • Discrepancy between potential to learn and level of achievement
  • Compare IQ level on IQ test with achievement test scores
  • Not a perfect way to assess
  • Issues with discrepancy approach/formula
some characteristics
Some Characteristics
  • Difficulty in understanding and following directions
  • Short attention span
  • Difficulty with handwriting and fine motor skills
  • Visual or auditory memory
  • Memorizing words or basic math facts
  • Difficulty allocating time and organizing work
characteristics continued
Characteristics continued
  • Segmenting words into sounds and blending sounds
  • May confuse letters and words (b, d) (was, saw)
  • Poor phonics/decoding/phonological awareness
  • Rapid naming
  • Inefficient learning strategies
  • Dyslexia – severe disability in learning to read, especially as related to decoding and spelling
  • Dysgraphia – severe disability in learning to write, including handwriting
  • Dyscalculia – severe disability in learning math concepts and computations
ld history
LD History
  • Coined by Sam Kirk in 1963 in Chicago
  • Previous terms
  • Fast growing category
  • Controversy
  • Invisible disability
history continued
History continued
  • Kirk
  • Orton
  • Process/product debate
assumed causes
Assumed Causes
  • Neurological based
  • Part of brain responsible for sounds and symbols
  • May be genetic link
  • Lead paint injection
  • FAS
teaching ideas
Teaching Ideas
  • Direct instruction
  • Memory/learning strategies
  • Self-management
  • Multi-sensory learning
  • Organized learning
teaching ideas continued
Teaching Ideas continued
  • Task analysis
  • Accommodations
  • Projects
  • Technologies
  • Other
other facts ld
Other Facts - LD
  • Learning disabilities often run in families
  • Learning disabilities is a life long disability
  • About 35% of students with LD drop out of school
other facts continued
Other Facts continued
  • Learning disabilities can be a serious obstacle to gainful employment
  • 50% of young criminals were determined to have learning disabilities
  • 85% of Americans often confuse learning disabilities with mental retardation
  • Early and appropriate interventions are essential