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Learning Disabilities. TLSE 240. What do all these people have in common?. Cher Jay Leno Whoopi Goldberg Charles Schwab Greg Louganis Bruce Jenner Nelson Rockefeller. They all have or had a LEARNING DISABILITY…. IDEA Definition.

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What do all these people have in common l.jpg
What do all these people have in common?

  • Cher

  • Jay Leno

  • Whoopi Goldberg

  • Charles Schwab

  • Greg Louganis

  • Bruce Jenner

  • Nelson Rockefeller

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IDEA Definition

  • “ a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language… (Psychological processes are memory, perception, attention, etc.)

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  • that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math calculations…”

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Includes conditions such as:

  • Perceptual disabilities

  • Brain injury

  • Minimal brain dysfunction

  • Dyslexia

  • Developmental aphasia

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Does not include

  • Problems primarily resulting from

    • Sensory or motor disabilities

    • Mental retardation

    • Emotional disturbance

    • Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage

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Learning Disabilities (LD)

  • Most common disability among students who receive special education (50.8% of all disabilities)

  • Several kinds of specific learning disabilities exist (i.e., reading, math, writing, etc.)

  • Difficulty in learning, especially in speaking, listening, writing, reading, and mathematics

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LD continued

  • Presumed cause is central nervous system dysfunction

  • Unexpected under achievement is a common characteristic

  • Average or above average IQ

  • Discrepancy between potential to learn and level of achievement

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  • Compare IQ level on IQ test with achievement test scores

  • Not a perfect way to assess

  • Issues with discrepancy approach/formula

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Some Characteristics

  • Difficulty in understanding and following directions

  • Short attention span

  • Difficulty with handwriting and fine motor skills

  • Visual or auditory memory

  • Memorizing words or basic math facts

  • Difficulty allocating time and organizing work

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Characteristics continued

  • Segmenting words into sounds and blending sounds

  • May confuse letters and words (b, d) (was, saw)

  • Poor phonics/decoding/phonological awareness

  • Rapid naming

  • Inefficient learning strategies

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  • Dyslexia – severe disability in learning to read, especially as related to decoding and spelling

  • Dysgraphia – severe disability in learning to write, including handwriting

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  • Dyscalculia – severe disability in learning math concepts and computations

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LD History

  • Coined by Sam Kirk in 1963 in Chicago

  • Previous terms

  • Fast growing category

  • Controversy

  • Invisible disability

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History continued

  • Kirk

  • Orton

  • Process/product debate

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Assumed Causes

  • Neurological based

  • Part of brain responsible for sounds and symbols

  • May be genetic link

  • Lead paint injection

  • FAS

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Teaching Ideas

  • Direct instruction

  • Memory/learning strategies

  • Self-management

  • Multi-sensory learning

  • Organized learning

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Teaching Ideas continued

  • Task analysis

  • Accommodations

  • Projects

  • Technologies

  • Other

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Other Facts - LD

  • Learning disabilities often run in families

  • Learning disabilities is a life long disability

  • About 35% of students with LD drop out of school

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Other Facts continued

  • Learning disabilities can be a serious obstacle to gainful employment

  • 50% of young criminals were determined to have learning disabilities

  • 85% of Americans often confuse learning disabilities with mental retardation

  • Early and appropriate interventions are essential