learning disabilities long after leaving school n.
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  1. LEARNING DISABILITIES LONG AFTER LEAVING SCHOOLBrenda Liptz, David Yellin College of Education, Jerusalem,

  2. Definitions of learning disabilities A commonly accepted medical definition of dyslexia is "Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. (Reid Lyon et al 2003). i.e. pathology, "can't do-es” Brenda Liptz

  3. On the other hand, there is a call for other perspectives and definitions. "Defining dyslexia at a single level of explanation – biological, cognitive or behavioral – will always lead to paradoxes. For a full understanding of dyslexia we need to link together the three levels and consider the impact of cultural factors which can aggravate or ameliorate the condition. The consensus is emerging that dyslexia is a neuro-developmental disorder with a biological origin, which impacts on speech processing with a range of clinical manifestations. There is evidence for a genetic basis and there is evidence for a brain basis, and it is clear that the behavioural signs extend well beyond written language. There may be different kinds of genes and different kinds of brain conditions that are ultimately responsible for the dyslexia syndrome, but in each case the symptoms have to be understood within the relevant cultural context. The influence of cultural factors is such that in some contexts the condition causes hardly any handicap in affected individuals, but in others it can cause a great deal of suffering. [The behavioural signs and the clinical impairments of the syndrome show great variability within and between individuals. In spite of this variability, theories situated within the three-level framework the potential to unify ideas on the causation and remediation of this fascinating condition.] (Frith 1999, p. 211), i.e. social perceptions, multiple intelligences/ learning styles, "can does “ Brenda Liptz

  4. Common difficulties of some people with LD Language-based functions Mathematical calculations Poor spatial orientation Poor organizational skills Poor memorization Slow processing speed Socially inappropriate behavior Attention deficit Brenda Liptz Common strengths of some people with LD Creative, problem solving Strong visual skills Strong oral expressive language Determined, extremely hard working Good social skills, empathy High level of self-awareness, metacognition Learning Disabilities Manifestations

  5. In schools • inclusion; training teachers towards awareness, tolerance; and enabling: • Early detection • Professional assessment • Remediation • Accommodations/bypass strategies/ compensation • for testing, bagrut • Brenda Liptz

  6. Occupational training / higher education • Self- awareness • Appropriate choices • Career guidance • Disclosure, self advocacy • Support (Leshem) • Brenda Liptz

  7. Workplacetransition • Self awareness • Exact job description • Goodness of fit • Disclosure • Accommodations Brenda Liptz

  8. Implications for school teachers • Identification • Understanding, empathy, encouragement • Creative, alternative assessment • Reach for the stars – famous people with LD Brenda Liptz