Learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities.
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With these individuals, visual stimulation should be kept to a minimum.
Visual materials such as pamphlets or books are ineffective unless the content is explained orally or the information is read aloud
If visual items are used, only one item should be given at any one time with a sufficient period in between times to allow for the information to be focused on and mastered.Teaching Strategies
Because persons with visual perceptual deficits usually learn best through hearing, using CDs and audiotapes (with or without earphones) and verbal instruction are keys in helping them learn.
Recall and retention of information can be assessed by oral questioning, allowing learners to express back to you in oral form what they understand and remember about the content that has been presented.Teaching Strategies
This type of disability is characterized by the inability to distinguish subtle differences in sounds—for example, “blue” and “blow” or “ball” and “bell.”
There also may be a problem with auditory “figure ground,” such that the sound of someone speaking cannot be identified clearly when others are speaking in the same room.
Auditory “lags” may occur, whereby sound input cannot be processed at a normal rate.Auditory Perceptual Disorders
During instruction, it is important to limit the noise level and eliminate distractions in the background
Using as few words as possible and repeating them when necessary (using the same words to avoid confusion) are useful strategies
Direct eye contact helps keep the learner focused on the task at hand.Teaching Strategies
Visual teaching methods such as demonstration– return demonstration, gaming (e.g., puppetry), modeling, and role-playing, as well as provision of visual instructional tools such as written materials, pictures, charts, films, books, puzzles, printed handouts, and the computer are the best ways to communicate information.
Using hand signs for key words when giving verbal instructions and allowing the learner to have hands-on experiences and opportunities for observation are useful techniques.
Directions for learning via these methods and tools should be in written form.Teaching Strategies
The visual learner may intently watch your face for the formation of words, expressions, eye movements, and hand gestures
Awareness to these details may have developed as a compensatory strategy to aid comprehension.
If the learner does not understand something being taught, he or she may exhibit frustration in the form of irritability and inattentiveness.Teaching strategies
Individuals with either visual or auditory perceptual problems often rely on tactile learning as well.
They enjoy doing things with their hands, want to touch everything, prefer writing and drawing, engage in physical exploration, and enjoy physical movement through sports activities
An inability to sequence or abstract visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli is characteristic of this type of disability.
A child who has difficulty sequencing information may read and understand the word dog as god because the letters d, o, and g are processed in the incorrect order.
Abstraction is the inability to infer meaning from words or phrases; that is, the specific intended meaning of words or thoughts is misunderstoodIntegrative Processing Disorders
Those with an integrative processing disability need specific explanations.
You should avoid using confusing phrases, puns, or sarcasm with such patients.
Frequently ask the person to repeat or demonstrate what was learned to immediately clear up any misconceptionsTeaching strategies
Short-term memory specific explanations.refers to information that is remembered as long as one is attending to it
Long-term memory consists of information that has been repeated and stored and becomes available whenever you think about it
Individuals with short-term memory deficits may be unable to recall what they learned an hour before, but they may be able to recall the information at a later point in time.Short-Term or Long-Term Memory Disorders
People with both short- and long-term memory disabilities need brief, frequent, repetitive teaching sessions for constant reinforcement of information.Teaching strategies
If you detect this response pattern(demand language disabled person), allowing sufficient time either to process the information received or to formulate a response will reduce barriers to communication as a result of anxiety and frustration.
For persons with either type of language disability, the greatest gift you can give them is time—time to process internal thoughts, to find words, and then to speak for the purpose of initiating a conversation or responding with answers to questions.Teaching strategies
• Provide information on tape, or give a learner the option of responding to questions orally with a tape recorder.
• Use hand signs for key words when giving verbal directions.
• Use hands-on experience or observation.
• Highlight important information.
• Use a computer.
• Capitalize on teachable moments.
• Use puzzles.
• Appeal to all senses—auditory, visual, and tactile.
• Use mnemonics
• Use a cognitive map
• Use an active reading strategy such as SQ3R (skim, question, read, rehearse, revise).Adaptive techniques:
Learning psychomotor tasks will be difficult if the individual has problems with performing gross and fine motor tasks.
Often people with this type of disability will avoid such tasks because of inadequate motor skills. For example, they will shy away from using writing as a form of communication because it requires fine motor coordination to accomplish.Motor Disorders
Instead of forcing them to handwrite, providing a tape recorder to allow them to demonstrate their knowledge of information is a good substitute.
Depending on the disabled person’s auditory and visual strengths, computers, typewriters, and preprinted materials may prove helpful tools for teaching and learning.
Safety also is always a concern for those with gross motor difficulties because they are prone to clumsiness, stumbling, or falling.
The environment should be kept as uncluttered as possible to avoid injury and embarrassmentTeaching strategies