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Chapter 6. Research Design: An Overview. Learning Objectives. Understand . . . The basic stages of research design. The major descriptors of research design. The major types of research designs.

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

Research Design: An Overview

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Understand . . .

The basic stages of research design.

The major descriptors of research design.

The major types of research designs.

The relationships that exist between variables in research design and the steps for evaluating those relationships.

research thought leaders
Research Thought Leaders
    • “We can forecast advances in technology, but we can’t really forecast human reactions to those advances. Maybe corporate researchers will invest in big data analytics only to discover they’re missing a hugely important piece: the story of why.”
  • Ron Sellers, CEO,
  • GreyMatter Research & Consulting
what is research design
What Is Research Design?

Blueprint

Plan

Guide

Framework

what tools are used in designing research1
What Tools Are Used in Designing Research?

MindWriter Project Plan in Gantt chart format

research design descriptors
Research Design Descriptors

Question Crystallization

Perceptual Awareness

Data Collection Method

Descriptors

Purpose of

Study

Experimental Effects

Time Dimension

Research Environment

Topical Scope

degree of question crystallization

Exploratory Study

Loose structure

Expand understanding

Provide insight

Develop hypotheses

Formal Study

Precise procedures

Begins with hypotheses

Answers research questions

Degree of Question Crystallization
approaches for exploratory investigations
Participant observation

Film, photographs

Projective techniques

Psychological testing

Case studies

Ethnography

Expert interviews

Document analysis

Proxemics and Kinesics

Approaches for Exploratory Investigations
desired outcomes of exploratory studies
Desired Outcomes of Exploratory Studies

Established range and scope of possible management decisions

Established major dimensions of research task

Defined a set of subsidiary questions that can guide research design

desired outcomes of exploratory studies cont
Desired Outcomes of Exploratory Studies (cont.)

Develop hypotheses about possible causes of management dilemma

Learn which hypotheses

can be safely ignored

Conclude additional research is

not needed or not feasible

experience surveys
Experience Surveys

What is being done?

What has been tried in the past with or without success?

How have things changed?

Who is involved in the decisions?

What problem areas can be seen?

Whom can we count on to assist or participate in the research?

focus groups
Group discussion

6-10 participants

Moderator-led

90 minutes-2 hours

Focus Groups
research design descriptors1
Research Design Descriptors

Question Crystallization

Perceptual Awareness

Data Collection Method

Descriptors

Purpose of

Study

Experimental Effects

Time Dimension

Research Environment

Topical Scope

data collection method
Data Collection Method

Communication

Monitoring

slide19

Research Design Descriptors

Question Crystallization

Perceptual Awareness

Data Collection Method

Descriptors

Purpose of

Study

Experimental Effects

Time Dimension

Research Environment

Topical Scope

the time dimension
The Time Dimension

Cross-sectional

Longitudinal

research design descriptors2
Research Design Descriptors

Question Crystallization

Perceptual Awareness

Data Collection Method

Descriptors

Purpose of

Study

Experimental Effects

Time Dimension

Research Environment

Topical Scope

the topical scope

Statistical Study

Breadth

Population inferences

Quantitative

Generalizable findings

Case Study

Depth

Detail

Qualitative

Multiple sources of information

The Topical Scope
research design descriptors3
Research Design Descriptors

Question Crystallization

Perceptual Awareness

Data Collection Method

Descriptors

Purpose of

Study

Experimental Effects

Time Dimension

Research Environment

Topical Scope

the research environment
The Research Environment

Field conditions

Lab conditions

Simulations

research design descriptors4
Research Design Descriptors

Question Crystallization

Perceptual Awareness

Data Collection Method

Descriptors

Purpose of

Study

Experimental Effects

Time Dimension

Research Environment

Topical Scope

purpose of the study
Purpose of the Study

Reporting

Descriptive

Casual -Explanatory

Causal -Predictive

descriptive studies

Who?

Where?

Descriptive Studies

How much?

What?

When?

descriptive studies1
Descriptive Studies

Descriptions of population characteristics

Estimates of frequency of characteristics

Discovery of associations among variables

research design descriptors5
Research Design Descriptors

Question Crystallization

Perceptual Awareness

Data Collection Method

Descriptors

Purpose of

Study

Experimental Effects

Time Dimension

Research Environment

Topical Scope

experimental effects

Experiment

Study involving the manipulation or control of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable

Ex Post Facto Study

After-the-fact report on what happened to the measured variable

Experimental Effects
causation and experimental design
Causation and Experimental Design

Control/

Matching

Random

Assignment

causal studies
Causal Studies

Symmetrical

Reciprocal

Asymmetrical

understanding casual relationships
Understanding Casual Relationships

Property

Behavior

Response

Stimulus

Disposition

asymmetrical casual relationships
Asymmetrical Casual Relationships

Stimulus-Response

Property-

Disposition

Property-

Behavior

Disposition-Behavior

evidence of causality
Evidence of Causality

Covariation between A and B

Time order of events

No other possible causes of B

research design descriptors6
Research Design Descriptors

Question Crystallization

Perceptual Awareness

Data Collection Method

Descriptors

Purpose of

Study

Experimental Effects

Time Dimension

Research Environment

Topical Scope

participants perceptional awareness
Participants’ Perceptional Awareness

No deviation perceived

Deviations perceived

as unrelated

Deviations perceived as

researcher-induced

key terms
Key Terms
  • Asymmetrical relationship
  • Case study
  • Causal study
  • Causation
  • Children’s panels
  • Communication study
  • Control
  • Control group
  • Correlation
  • Cross-sectional study
  • Descriptive study
  • Ethnographic research
  • Ex post facto design
  • Experience
  • Experiment
  • Exploratory study
  • Field conditions
  • Focus group
  • Formal study
key terms cont
Key Terms (cont.)
  • Individual depth interview
  • Intranet
  • Laboratory conditions
  • Longitudinal study
  • Matching
  • Monitoring
  • Primary data
  • Qualitative techniques
  • Random assignment
  • Reciprocal relationship
  • Research design
  • Secondary data
  • Simulation
  • Statistical study
  • Symmetrical relationship
chapter 61

Chapter 6

Additional Discussion opportunities

snapshot mcdonald s listening tour
Snapshot: McDonald’s Listening Tour

Products

Nutritional Messaging

Sustainability initiatives

snapshot wildcat surveys issues
Snapshot: Wildcat Surveys…Issues

Control Costs

Immediate Feedback

Sample Fatigue

Questioning expertise

Data Analysis Skills

snapshot wildcat survey researcher role
Snapshot: Wildcat Survey…Researcher Role

Best practices, templates, and other

resources for self-executed projects

Reduce validity & redundancy

Become consultative partner

research thought leaders1
Research Thought Leaders

“Most human beings and most companies

don’t like to make choices. And they

particularly don’t like to make a few choices that they really have to live with.”

Alan Lafley

former president and chairman of the board

P&G

pulsepoint research revelation
PulsePoint: Research Revelation

76

The percent of mobile phone subscribers worldwide who use SMS text messaging.

chapter 62

Chapter 6

Research Design: An Overview