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What Is Soil? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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What Is Soil?. Soil is the layer of rock and mineral fragments along with organic matter, water and air that supports the growth of plants. The four components of soil: Decomposed rock Humus Air Water. What is Dirt?. Dirt is what gets on your clothes and into your house.

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Presentation Transcript
what is soil
What Is Soil?

Soil is the layer of rock and mineral fragments along with organic matter, water and air that supports the growth of plants.

The four components of soil:

Decomposed rock

Humus

Air

Water

slide2

What is Dirt?

Dirt is what gets on your clothes and into your house

controls on soil formation
Controls on Soil Formation
  • Parent material – Bedrock vs. Unconsolidated
  • Time – longer time, more soil
  • Climate – temperature and precipitation
  • More plants and animals = more organic matter
  • Poorly developed soils on steep slopes
soil texture and structure
Soil Texture and Structure

Point A:

10% silt

40% clay

50% sand

Clay loam has no single particle size percentage that dominates!

controls of soil formation
Controls of Soil Formation

If the parent material is bedrock, then we get residual soils

On unconsolidated sediments, we get transported soils

slide6

Soil composition

-Soil forms in layers

-Larger materials are found on the bottom

How quickly is soil formed?

-It may take several hundred years for 1cm to form

slide7

Soil profile

A vertical column showing the sequence of layers of particles in the soil

slide8

Soil Horizons

-A distinct layer or zone within a profile

-There are four major zones (O, A, B, C)

O zone -Leaf litter, high decomposition

A Zone

-High organic matter

-Generally the darkest in color

-High humus content

B Zone

-Less developed

-Lighter in color

-Zone of accumulation (highly soluble mineral build-up)

-Red or brown in color

-Clay accumulated (Hard pan formation)

C Zone

-Contains weather parent material

slide9

Soil Horizons

O zone

-Leaf litter, high decomposition

A Zone

-High organic matter

-Generally the darkest in color

-High humus content

B Zone

-Less developed

-Lighter in color

-Zone of accumulation (highly soluble mineral build-up)

-Red or brown in color

-Clay accumulated (Hard pan formation)

C Zone

-Contains weather parent material

slide11

Eroded channels ranging in size from rivulets to small gullies caused mainly by runoff waters rather than raindrop dislocation.