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Intervention. Appropriate Interventions for ELLs Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) Response to Intervention (RTI). Interventions. Indirect Individual Consultation Group Consultation Classroom Consultation Systems Consultation Direct: Individual Counseling Group Counseling

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Appropriate Interventions for ELLs

Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS)

Response to Intervention (RTI)

  • Indirect
    • Individual Consultation
    • Group Consultation
    • Classroom Consultation
    • Systems Consultation
  • Direct:
    • Individual Counseling
    • Group Counseling
    • Family Counseling
    • Direct Instruction
information needed
Information Needed
  • Service Providers:
    • ESL or Bilingual Teacher
    • General Education Teacher
    • Special Education Teacher
  • What they need to know:
    • How 2nd languages are acquired
    • How culture impacts learning
    • How SES impacts learning
    • Cultural and linguistic learning styles
systems consultation
Systems Consultation
  • Typical problems:
    • School is experiencing bullying problems.
    • Student academics are low throughout the county.
    • District SPED has overrepresentation of diverse students.
  • Common solutions:
    • Consultant researches effective techniques for bully-prevention programs and teaches them to the school.
    • Consultant works with district to help make curriculum, special program, or textbook decisions.
    • Consultant works with lawyers and/ or state DOE to ensure that the district complies with requirements.
group consultation
Group Consultation
  • Typical problems:
    • Group of children throughout the school in different classrooms experiencing the same problems.
    • Entire ELL classroom of children are experiencing the same problems.
  • Common solutions:
    • Observe and evaluate the current methods/ techniques used.
    • Research the best types of programs to deal with this specific problem.
    • Share the results of the research and observations .
    • Work together to come up with solutions.
individual consultation
Individual Consultation
  • Typical problems:
    • Child is experiencing academic difficulties.
    • Child is experiencing social/emotional/behavioral problems.
  • Common solutions:
    • SST/CST/SIPT works with all teachers involved
      • All teachers are given additional skills to help the child.
    • Parent is given additional skills to help the child.
    • Parent & teachers work together to help the child.
steps to consultation w diverse consultee gibbs 1980
Steps to Consultation w/ Diverse Consultee (Gibbs, 1980)
  • Appraisal: Consultee determines the trustworthiness of the consultant.
  • Investigation: Challenge the consultant to determine if they qualified to work with them.
  • Involvement: Consultee will open up if they trust you to develop a relationship.
  • Commitment: Consultee commits to consultant but not process.
  • Engagement: Commit to the process if they believe in interpersonal skills of consultant.
points to consider client is diverse
Points to Consider: Client is Diverse
  • Must identify consultant’s knowledge of cultural sensitivity.
  • Must aid consultee in developing cultural sensitivity and knowledge about different cultural groups.
  • Must aid consultee in developing understanding of system in which client works and lives.
  • Work with teacher/consultee to improve development of curriculum and multicultural education.

(Duncan, 1995)

breakdown improving cultural competence
Breakdown: Improving Cultural Competence
  • Self-awareness: know your own bias and the impact of this on therapy/ consultation.
  • Assessment of client: Understand the system and knowledge of the client
  • Pre-therapy: Make client aware of what is and what will happen.
  • Hypothesizing: What are the problems?
  • Credibility and giving: Client / Consultee must believe in the treatment.
  • Discomfort/ Resistance: Therapists/ Consultant feelings of why is this not working?
  • Client’s/ Consultee’s Perspective: Know your client and conultee
  • Kalyanpur, M. & Harry, B. (1999). Culture in Special Education. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Company.
  • Linan-Thompson, S., Cirino, P. T., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Learning Disability Quarterly, 30, 185-197.
  • Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T. (2006). The response to intervention of English language learners at risk for reading problems Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39 (5), 390-398
  • Paneque, O., & Barbetta, P. (2006). A study of teacher efficacy of special education teachers of English language learners with disabilities. Bilingual Research Journal, 30 (1), 171-193
  • Shanahan, T., & Beck, 1. (2006). Effective literacy teaching for English language learners. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 415-488). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Eribaum Associates.
  • Xu, Y., & Drame, E. (2007). Culturally appropriate context: Unlocking the potential of Response to Intervention for English language learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35, 305-311