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Intervention

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  1. Intervention Chapter 4

  2. Chapter Overview • Interventions • Stress model • Setting up roadblocks • Understanding what comprehensive stress management is • Taking control and making a commitment

  3. What Are Interventions? Activities to prevent a stressor from resulting in negative consequences

  4. A Model of Stress • A life situation (e.g., threat, a change in one’s life) knocks you off balance Roadblocks can change cognitive appraisal of the stress stimulus

  5. A Model of Stress (cont.) • Situation is perceived (interpreted) as stressful • Emotional reaction leads to feelings such as fear, anger, insecurity • These feelings lead to physiological arousal (stress reactivity) • Consequences: poor performance, illness, possible disease

  6. A Model of Stress (cont.) • This stress model is an example of a feedback loop • Stress model can have many feedback loops • A consequence of stress (e.g., illness) can become a new stressor and start a new feedback loop Roadblocks can change cognitive appraisal of the stress stimulus

  7. Setting up Roadblocks • Intervention is used to block a stressful consequence • These blocks are set up at various points on the stress theory model • Cognitive restructuring or medications (prescribed or illegal) can be used as roadblocks

  8. Setting up Roadblocks (cont.) • A roadblock (e.g., relaxation technique) between the perception phase and the emotion phase can be effective • Exercise can effectively block the continuation of stress after physiological arousal has occurred

  9. Comprehensive Stress Management • Includes intervention at all phases of the stress theory model • Several methods are used at each phase • Elimination of all stress is not recommended • Goal is to perform within optimal levels of stress (see Figure 4.4)

  10. Did You Know? • Stress can be good! • Have you ever taken a really important test, aced it, and really felt good and almost euphoric after it was over? • This type of stress is called eustress

  11. Eustress • Stress that results in positive consequences • Involves change that requires adaptation • Allows personal growth and is beneficial to the person • Figure 4.4 illustrates how stress can be productive

  12. Yerkes-Dodson Curve

  13. Taking Control • Managing stress means exercising control rather than giving up control • One can decide to control or not control the stress response (assuming responsibility) • Practicing specific techniques is a means of taking control and assuming responsibility

  14. Making a Commitment • Start right now • Complete a contract • Plan rewards for reaching accomplishments • Plan punishments for not fulfilling contract • Keep goals realistic

  15. Intervention