Why Our Memory Fails Us Psychology Miss Gardner
Warm-Up • What are some reasons that our memory might fail us?
Memory Disorders Overview • Any illness can cause memory ipairment • Any time that concentration is disrupted, memory will be affected • Disorders that affect the memory number around 50.
Alzheimer’s Disease • Progressive deterioration of the brain • Elderly • No known cause • Main effects on memory
Alzheimer’s http://www.healthline.com/health-slideshow/best-videos-alzheimers#7 http://www.healthline.com/health-slideshow/best-videos-alzheimers#13
Alzheimer’s Disease • Symptoms: 1. Unawareness of memory problems 2. Confusion 3. Short-term question repetition 4. Getting lost in familiar areas 5. Forgetting a) who they are b) memories from younger years c) meaning of words d) simple tasks
Treatment for Alzheimer’s • No known cure • Mental exercises as prevention • Medications for symptoms • Investigation of supplements (fish oil, etc.)
Amnesia Overview • Definition: Loss of memory • Temporary or permanent • Causes: injury, shock, fatigue, illness, repression, or drugs
Anterograde Amnesia • Occurs after an injury or trauma • Individual cannot form new memories of new events • Implicit memory is preserved • Clive!!!
Retrograde Amnesia • Inability to remember events before a trauma or injury • May stretch from minutes to years • Typically worse for events right before the trauma
Aphasia • Definition: The loss of memory for words • Expressive/Motor: Loss of ability to write/speak words • Receptive/Sensory: Loss of memory for meaning of spoken, written words, or symbols https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1aplTvEQ6ew
Dissociative Amnesia • A time period in the past is forgotten because it was traumatic or stressful
Fugue Amnesia • A person forgets his/her identity • Extremely rare • The person may wake up and suddenly have no sense of who they are. He or she looks in the mirror and sees a stranger. In the wallet or purse the person may find identification, but the name and birth date on the driver's license seem meaningless.
Fugue Amnesia Video Clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QajubDsCcrw
Dissociative Identity Disorder • A person has “multiple personalities” • They forget events that happen when another personality is present
PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) • A reaction to a terrifying event where the person suffers from intrusive memories • Caused by events of severe stress- war, murder, disasters. • Most often seen in veterans
Penny Exercise Answers • 2. The words United States of America • 5. The words One Cent • 6. The date (year) of the mint • 11. The right side of Lincoln’s face • 14. The Lincoln Memorial • 15. The words In God We Trust • 16. The word Liberty • 19. The words E Pluribus Unum
Encoding Failure • Represents a failure to encode. • The details of a penny are not that important to us…absent-mindedness • Also, we think about what should be, not what is.
Capital City Exercise • Name as many as you can without help. • Write the first few letters if you only remember part of the word. • I will give you a hint.
Interference • Proactive Interference- When an older memory disrupts recall of a newer memory. • Retroactive Interference- When a more recent memory disrupts recall of an older memory.
Repression vs. Retrieval Exercise • Precious Stone: First • Fish: Second • State: Third • Insect: Second • Type of Music: First • Alcoholic Beverage: Third • Color: Second • Military Title: Third • Article of Clothing: First • Sport: Second 11. Musical Instrument: First 12. Four-Footed Animal: Third 13. Occupation: First 14. Weapon: Third 15. Furniture: Second 16. Type of Fuel: Second 17. Disease: First 18: Vegetable: Third 19. Type of Vehicle: Second 20. Body Part: First
Memory Construction • Have you ever had a strong, vivid memory and later learned you were wrong (or realized that what you remember could not have happened)? If so, write it down. • Why do you think this occurred? • We will share our answers…
Constructs • A complex idea resulting from the combination of simpler ideas • Not directly observable • Something built systematically • Constantly changing
Answer the following in groups: • What if the simpler ideas/experiences from which we construct our memories are not all accurate? • What does this mean for our identity?
War of the Ghosts • We slightly alter images, memories, and ideas to fit into our own method of understanding/remembering • Listen very carefully!
How/Why does our memory transform material? • Accepted/conventional representations - That couldn’t have been a wolf…it was a dog • Some features cannot be labeled until a recognized form is produced -If it doesn’t fit anything that we know/are used to, we have trouble recognizing or remembering it…chemistry anyone?
Bartlett’s Conclusions • After first recall, the general form or outline stays the same • Form and items become stereotyped and then don’t change • Story is rationalized (westernized)- symbolization • We simplify, omit, and transform images into things we recognize
Misinformation Effect • Incorporating misleading information into a memory. • Examples?
Eyewitness Testimony • Identify the bomber on the roof… http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~glwells/theeyewitnesstest.html
Child Testimony • Imagine that you are a therapist or attorney who needs to interview a child about a possible case of abuse. Describe the procedure that you would use to ensure that the answers are as accurate as possible.
Is Repression Real? • Our memories are anchored by context cues…If we dig deep enough, we can retrieve them.
Improving Memory Group Exercise • Develop a study plan for a student using 4-5 of the memory techniques in your book. • Imagine that the student has a psychology test approaching, and they want a detailed plan of methods, techniques, and examples that they can use to succeed on this exam.