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  1. Cognitive Neuroscience “Meet & Greet” “Emergence and evolution of a dynamic dissipative network.”

  2. Cognitive Neuroscience “Meet & Greet” • Purpose • Link up researchers & clinicians within and across schools at CWRU (…+ other local institutions) • Inclusive (people can continue to sign up here: ) • First step, next steps: website, regular meetings, external speakers, retreat. (let us know) • Strategic Planning: what strengths are already here, where do we want to go? • Dept. Cognitive Science: Undergrad <3 yrs old, >70 majors. MA Cognitive Linguistics. Aims to links up CWRU strengths.

  3. Cognitive Neuroscience “Meet & Greet” • Program • Daniela Calvetti, Chair of Mathematics. Art. Sci. • Anthony Furlan, Chair of Neurology, Med. Sch. • Brief self-introductions w/ slides, questions • (Off the cuff self-introductions – time permitting) • Break for informal discussion - drinks, snacks, in Cogsci lounge & Cogsci forum (612) • Thanks to Gina Cesaro

  4. Websites • (needs updating) • (under construction)

  5. Case Western Reserve UniversityCognitive Neuroscience Initiative Meeting October 29, 2008 Hosted by: Tony jack, ph.d. CWRU Dept. Cognitive Science Anthony furlan, md. UH Chairman of Neurology

  6. Anastasia Dimitropoulos, Ph.D.Department of Psychology, CWRU • keywords: • neurodevelopmental disabilities • Prader-Willi Syndrome • autism • psychological and neurobiological functioning • fMRI • food motivation, reward, obesity • social competence • OCD

  7. Effects of long term voluntary exercise on the Forced Swim Test in Rats Patrick Chirdon1,2, Pingfu Feng1, 1: Case Western Reserve University 2: Department of Medicine/Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University 3: Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center

  8. Background: It is a common understanding that exercise benefits human health in many aspects. For example: 1. Exercise improves mood. 2. Exercise combats chronic diseases. 3. Exercise helps manage body weight. 4. Exercise strengthens heart and lungs. 5. Exercise promotes better sleep. 6. Exercise can increase reproductive behavior. Objectives:To determine if long term voluntary exercise would benefit mood Design: Voluntary exercise 10 wks Swim test 15 min from age 25 days Ten wks later

  9. Time (s) Spent Climbing, Swimming, and Immobile By Test Group

  10. Ten weeks of wheel activity • Conclusion: Exercise does have a natural antidepressant • Like effect on behavior, but exercise is only effective in • Increasing active behaviors if the rat is older than 6.5 • Weeks. Rats older than 6.5 weeks have motivation to exercise that younger rats have not developed.

  11. Case Center for Imaging Research (CCIR) Neuroimaging Program Jean A. Tkach, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Radiology and BME Xu Chen, Ph.D. Post Doc fMRI analysis Jack Jesberger , MS Engineer/Research Gregory R. Lee, Ph.D. Post Doc MRI acquisition and reconstruction Eric Pierre, MS Ph.D. student Image processing

  12. Representative fMRI Projects • Speech Sound Disorders – overt speech production • Chemobrain– concentration and short term memory • Prenatal Cocaine Exposure – visual spatial skills

  13. fMRI Investigation of Speech Production in SSD • Barbara Lewis, Ph.D. Communication Sciences Department of Case Western Reserve University • Overt word and non word repetition task in SSD adolescent subjects and age matched controls (CAS) • Novel fMRI acquisition protocol

  14. FMRI Study of Chemobrain Jean A. Tkach, Ph.D. Department of Radiology, CCIR Joseph Barr, MD Departments of Hematology and Oncology Paula Ogrocki, Ph.D. Department of Neurology Memory and Cognition Center Xu Chen, Ph.D. Department of Radiology, CCIR Lois Friedman, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Jack Jesberger Department of Radiology, CCIR

  15. FMRI Evaluation of Chemobrain What is Chemobrain ? • Overall reduction in cognitive performance: primarily in attention, concentration , information processing speed and memory • Self report and confirmed by neurobehavioral testing • Dramatic negative impact on QUALITY OF LIFE. Compromises daily functioning at home, job and socially Study Objective : • Develop fMRI methodology to identify neuronal substrate affected by chemotherapy • Same fMRI methodology can then be used to longitudinally evaluate efficacy of interventional therapies developed to address the chemotherapy induced cognitive deficits. FMRI Study : • Interrogate functional networks supporting working memory andattention Stroop Task N-back Task ( 1 and 2 back ) ****Similar Paradigms being used to evaluate Bariatric surgery patients pre and post surgery

  16. Neuronal dynamics:Theory and experiments,from neurons to networks Roberto FernándezGalán, PhD School of Medicine Department of Neurosciences

  17. Reliable neural codes Pyramidal cell in the neocortex Mitral cell in the olfactory bulb R.F. Galán et al. (2007) Journal of Neurophysiology

  18. Theory Experiments

  19. Connectivity determines activity patterns in cortical networks PLoS One, 3(5) e2148, 2008

  20. from neurons to networks… …to large brain structures connectivity covariance 1/ work in progress with G. Karl Steinke dominant patterns EEG spectrum and brain rhythms

  21. Joseph C. LaManna, PhD Departments of Physiology & Biophysics, Neurology, and Neuroscience

  22. The Neurovascular Unit Iadecola, Nature Rev Neurosci 5:347, 2004 Stroke & Recovery from Stroke Physiological & Pathophysiological Aging Neuroprotection& Preconditioning Cancer & Tumors Cardiac Arrest & Resuscitation AVM’s & other vascular Pathologies

  23. Current Lab Projects • Physiologic Adaptation to Hypoxia • Angioplasticity • Cardiac Arrest & Resuscitation • Ketones and Alternate Substrates

  24. Laboratories of Experimental Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease • In Vivo Models • Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation • Focal Stroke • Chronic Hypoxia • Major Measurements • rCBF • BBB transport • Capillary Density • Immunohistochemistry

  25. Lee Anne Thompson, Ph.D. Professor Department of Psychology Mather Memorial Bldg, Rm 126B 368-6477

  26. Western Reserve Reading and Math Project • Primary Investigator: • Stephen Petrill, Ohio State University • Co-Investigators: • Laurie Cutting, Johns Hopkins University • Kirby Deater-Deckard, Virginia Polytechnic University • Laura DeThorne, University of Illinois • Lynn Fuchs, Vanderbilt University • David Geary, University of Missouri • Robert Plomin, Institute of Psychiatry, London • Chris Schatschneider, Florida State University • Lee Thompson, Case Western Reserve University • David Vandenbergh, Pennsylvania State University • Funding • NICHD HD38075 • NICHD/IES HD46167 W R R M P

  27. Western Reserve Reading and Math Project • Sample • Ongoing longitudinal study (K thru 5th) • 400 pairs of identical and same-sex fraternal twins • Recruited through schools in Ohio (soon to be 500) • Procedures: • DNA collection and genotyping • Parent ratings • Teacher ratings • In-home testing (parents and children) • Tester ratings • Longitudinal Assessment, detailed measurement of reading, math, behavioral outcomes, and family environment W R R M P

  28. Testing in WRRMP Reading 1 Acquisition Reading 2 Acquisition Reading 3 Acquisition HD38075 Psychometric Math HD46167 Reading 4 Comprehension Reading 5 Comprehension Reading 6 Comprehension HD38075 Process Based Math W R R M P

  29. Visual-Spatial-Motor Tasks in Brain Imaging Studies John A. Jesberger Case Center for Imaging Research

  30. Video Games  fMRI Tasks Visual Feedback & Direction Isolated from hands Head: not moving Body: not moving Hands executing complex tasks in a VR space on the screen He could easily be doing this in an MRI

  31. Advantages of the Standard Video Game Platform for fMRI • Hundreds of millions of potential subjects already trained by Nintendo, Microsoft, & Sony • Games are more fun – better tolerance & engagement of subjects in more complex tasks • Tools and expertise for development now widespread • VR Labs and game design curricula at many universities • CWRU Virtual Worlds Laboratory • Leads to much faster development cycle • Controller and first task developed in 6 months!

  32. Screen shot of our Block Design “Game” Design To Match First block picked up being rotated for placement Blocks MRI compatible controller Already Built and tested Control Scheme

  33. First maps of neural activation while performing a Block Design Task Each epoch contained 44 sec Block Design (active) 44 sec Fixation (control) Repeated for 5 epochs Block design was self-paced, i.e. after completing a pattern the subject was presented a new pattern until 44 seconds was up. Total trial time 7:24 (min:sec)

  34. Wyatt Newmanprofessor, EECS DeptRoboticist Team Leader, DEXTER and Team Case, DARPA Urban Challenge DEXTER and Team Case at the National Qualifying Event: Autonomous vehicle, DEXTER, was designed to navigate missions while conforming to all traffic laws and interacting with live and robotic traffic in an urban setting.

  35. Recent Robotics Projects Industrial robot using force sensing and genetic algorithm autonomously learns to perform mechanical assembly “Jinks” following optical beacon on leader in Komen Race for the Cure, 2008

  36. Other… • Classes: • Computational Intelligence (Neural Networks), EECS 484 • Mobile Robotics (projects course), EECS 397 • Digital Control, Introduction to Robotics, Senior Project, Electromechanics, Intro to programming • Research projects • Autonomous learning for manipulation • Force sensing for robotic assembly and surface finishing • Intelligent Ground Vehicles (competition) • Localization and mapping (Lidar, stereo vision, kinematics, GPS, Kalman filters) • Machine vision (Independent Component Analysis for image interpretation) • Autonomous learning for improved driving • Interest in robots and emotions

  37. Peter J. WhitehousePast, present and future Case Western Reserve University Neurology, Cognitive Science, and Organizational Behavior

  38. Past • Cholinergic basal forebrain and nicotinic receptors • Clinical pathological correlation(brain-behavior) • Drug development • Attention • Verbal and imaginal memory coding

  39. Present • Concepts of aging and disease • Genetics of Alzheimer’s • Clinical and research ethics • Quality of life • Narrative medicine • Intergenerational learning

  40. Future • Wisdom • Moral imagination • Learning organizations • Intergenerational ethics • Sustainability

  41. Department of MathematicsApplied Mathematics Research Daniela Calvetti Rossana Occhipinti Erkki Somersalo

  42. Brain Imaging and Metabolic Modeling • An integrated view: development of computational models that help to understand • how the neuronal activity triggers metabolic activity • how the brain energetics works at cellular level • how the metabolic activity signals to cerebral blood flow • Development of computational statistical tools for brain imaging using PET, MEG and Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT)

  43. Neuropsychological Aspects of Pediatric Epilepsy Philip S. Fastenau, Ph.D. Department of Neurology

  44. Conceptual Model Family Functioning Genetic Mental Health, Academic, & Social Comorbidities Electro- Physio. Seizures & ADRs Neuropsych Dysfunction Structural TCI Modified from Fastenau, Dunn, & Austin (2003), In Rizzo & Eslinger’s Principles of Behavioral Neurology

  45. Baseline MRI & Concurrent NP Byars, deGrauw, Johnson, Fastenau, et al. (2007). Epilepsia, 48(6), 1067–1074.

  46. Baseline EEG & Concurrent NP d = 0.31 (PS only, p<.05) Fastenau, Johnson, Dunn, deGrauw, et al. (2007). Epilepsia, 48(Suppl. 6), 230-231.

  47. NP Decline During 1st 3 Years: Relationship to Achievement Fastenau, Johnson, Perkins, Byars, Dunn, & Austin (2008). Journal of the Intl. Neuropsychological Society, 14.

  48. Visualizing business information Fred Collopy Weatherhead School of Management