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Chapter 7… ALL OF IT • I’m sorry to do this too you all, but we are behind and need to catch up…
Regional Economies Create Differences Chapter 7 Section 1
During the 1800’s many changes took place in the United States. For example, moved from small workshops to large factories that used machines. This change was partly due to Eli Whitney.
http://www.eliwhitney.org/new/museum/about-eli-whitney/factoryhttp://www.eliwhitney.org/new/museum/about-eli-whitney/factory • In 1798 Eli Whitney built a firearms factory near New Haven, Connecticut. The muskets his workmen made by methods comparable to those of modern mass industrial production were the first to have standardized, interchangeable parts.
These changes in manufacturing brought about Industrial Revolution. This was the name given to the massive changes – to both the economy and society – that resulted from the growth of the factory system.
Industrialization in America took place primarily in the New England states. As a result, people were willing to manufacture goods.
In 1793, Eli Whitney helped to further promote agriculture by inventing the cotton gin. The machine helped to clean the cotton and increased cotton production, which led to the establishment of large cotton plantations.
As a result, the number of slaves in the south nearly doubled from 700,000 to 1,200,000 by the mid 1800’s.
The Federal government also began improving the nation’s transportation network. In 1811, the government began building the National Roadto carry settlers west.
In 1816, Congress voted to set up the Second bank of the United States.
Nationalism at Center Stage Chapter 7 Section 2
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy • Secretary of State John Quincy Adams established a foreign policy that was based on nationalism. This is a belief that national interests as a whole should be more important than what one region wants.
Adams believed that foreign affairs should be guided by this national interest.
In 1817, Adams worked out a treaty with Great Britain that reduced the number of both countries’ navy ships on the Great Lakes. The United States and Great Britain also agreed to settle boundary disputes in North America.
Two years later, Adams turned his attention to Florida. By this time, most Americans assumed that Spanish Florida eventually would become part of the United States.
Spain responded by handing over Florida to the United States in the Adams-Onís Treaty. Under the terms of the treaty, Spain also gave up any claims it had on the Oregon Treaty.
In 1823, the fifth president, President James Monroe warned European nations not to interfere with any nation in the Americas. In return, the United States would stay out of European Affairs. This statement is called the Monroe Doctrine.
As a growing number of Americans settled there, the West became more populated. As a result, some territories were ready to become states.
The issue of slavery made the process of becoming a new state difficult. In order to appease both the North and the South, Congress tried to keep an even number of slave and free states, or states where slavery was prohibited.
In 1819, Missouri asked to enter the union. • At that time, the nation consisted of 11 free states and 10 slave states.
Southerners expected Missouri to become the 11th slave state. However, the House of Representatives passed a statehood bill that would allow Missouri to gradually free its slaves.
The debate over Missouri grew more intense after Alabama was admitted as a slave state. This meant that Missouri’s admittance would tip the scales in favor of either the free or slave states.
A crisis was adverted when Henry Clay crafted a series of agreements known as the Missouri Compromise. Under the compromise, Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state.
This preserved the balance between slave and free states. In addition, the rest of the Louisiana Purchase was divided into free and slave territory.
The Age of Jackson Chapter 7 Section 3
Expanding Democracy Changes Politics • Andrew Jackson, a hero from the War of 1812, ran for president in 1824 against John Quincy Adams. Neither candidate received a majority of electoral votes and the House ofRepresentatives had to decide the winner.
Speaker of the House Henry Clay disliked Jackson. He used his influenceto help Adams win the election.
Jackson’s followers accused Adams of stealing the election. They called the relationship between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay a Corrupt Bargain.
Jackson and his allies formed their own party – the Democratic Party. Adams supporters called Jackson a “Jack-Ass”. Jackson took the put down and made it his party’s mascot.
With their help, Jackson won the following presidential election by a landslide.
Removal of Native Americans • By the early 1800’s, some Native American groups in the Southeast began to take on the culture of their white neighbors. These tribes – the Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Creek, and Chickasaw – were called the Five Civilized Tribes.
Despite all this, settlers did not wish to live with Native Americans. Instead, they wanted Native American land in the South and West for farms.
As a result, President Jackson decided to remove the Native Americans from their lands.
Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830. The law ordered all Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi river.
In 1830, Jackson pressured the Chocktaw to sign a treaty that required them to move from Mississippi. In 1831, he ordered U.S. troops to forcibly remove the Sauk and Fox from their lands in Illinois and Missouri. In 1832, he forced the Chickasaw to leave their lands in Alabama and Mississippi.
The Cherokee Nation, however, fought the Indian Removal Act in court. Chief Justice Marshall ruled in their favor. The Court said that the United States had no right to take Cherokee land.
But Andrew Jackson refused to obey the Court’s ruling. Instead, federal agents signed a treaty with a group of Cherokee leaders willing to leave their land.
Beginning in October and November of 1838, U.S. Army troops began forcing the Cherokees’ to travel from Georgia to the new Indian territory west of the Mississippi River.
The 800 mile trip was made partly by steamboat and railroad but mostly on foot.
As the winter came, more and more Cherokee died. Along the way, government officials stole the Cherokees money, while outlaws made off with their livestock. The journey became known as the Trail of Tears because more than a quarter of the travelers died on it.
State’s Rights and the National Bank Chapter 7 Section 4
A Tariff Raises the States’ Rights Issue • Jackson’s vice president was John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. • The two men opposed each other over the Tariff of 1816.
This was a tax that increased the price of foreign-made goods. By 1828, the tariff had been raised twice.
Although Calhoun supported the tariff at first, he came to oppose it. He called it a Tariff of Abominations, because he believed that it hurt the South.
Southerners had little industry of their own. • They believed that they were paying more for goods in order to support industry in the North.
Calhoun believed the South had the right to disobey the tariff based on the principle of nullification. This principle held that states could nullify federal laws that they felt were unconstitutional.
Calhoun went even further. He believed that if the government forbid a state from nullifying a federal law, that state had the right to leave the union.