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Driver’s Education. Chapter 15 Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Driving. Effects of Alcohol on Driving Safety. Alcohol is the most commonly used drug in our society today. By far the most frequently used drug in fatally injured drivers.

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driver s education

Driver’s Education

Chapter 15

Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Driving

effects of alcohol on driving safety
Effects of Alcohol on Driving Safety
  • Alcohol is the most commonly used drug in our society today.
  • By far the most frequently used drug in fatally injured drivers.
  • All states now enforce a minimum driving age is 21, laws against underage drinking are more strictly and more vigorously enforced now than ever.
alcohol facts
Alcohol Facts
  • Alcohol – is the commonly used term for the chemical substance ethanol, grain alcohol, or ethyl alcohol.
  • Alcohol is the product of the fermentation of fruits, grains, and other plants.
  • Alcohol is classified as a drug because of the effects on the CNS.
alcohol facts1
Alcohol Facts
  • Younger people who drink and drive are involved in twice as many fatal crashes as people over 21.
  • Drivers aged 16-20 are more likely to be alcohol-impaired than any other group.
  • Nearly half of those killed in alcohol-related collisions had not been drinking, but were victims of drunk drivers.
  • More than half of all fatalities during holidays are alcohol-related.
how alcohol affects behaviors

APPROXIMATE BLOOD ALCOHOL PERCENTAGE

Drinks

Body Weight in Pounds

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

1

.04

.03

.03

.02

.02

.02

.02

.02

2

.08

.06

.05

.05

.04

.04

.03

.03

3

.11

.09

.08

.07

.06

.06

.05

.05

4

.15

.12

.11

.09

.08

.08

.07

.06

5

.19

.16

.13

.12

.11

.09

.09

.08

6

.23

.19

.16

.14

.13

.11

.10

.09

7

.26

.22

.19

.16

.15

.13

.12

.11

8

.30

.25

.21

.19

.17

.15

.14

.13

9

.34

.28

.24

.21

.19

.17

.15

.14

10

.38

.31

.27

.23

.21

.19

.17

.16

How Alcohol Affects Behaviors

ONE DRINK = 12 OZ. BEER/4OZ. WINE/1OZ. 80 PROOF LIQUOR

  • Just one drink can affect a person’s behavior, both mentally, and physically.
  • The same amount of alcohol does not affect people the same way.
  • The best way to avoid changes in behavior is to abstain from drinking.
mental abilities and alcohol
Mental Abilities and Alcohol
  • Alcohol is absorbed directly and quickly into the bloodstream through the walls and linings of the digestive tract.
  • Once alcohol enters the bloodstream, it quickly flows to the brain.
  • Judgment and Reason – the two most critical skills needed by a driver, become impaired.
  • Physical abilities become impaired soon afterward.
judgment and reason
Judgment and Reason
  • A driver affected by alcohol has a decreased ability to reason clearly and make sound judgments.
  • The driver may actually feel that their thinking and judgment abilities are sharper, quicker, and more accurate.
  • However, alcohol puts sound judgment on hold.
judgment and reason1
Judgment and Reason
  • Euphoria – false feeling of well-being.
  • Because alcohol distorts vision, visual search patterns can be effected.
  • Alcohol weakens a person inhibitions, the inner forces that restrain or hold back one’s impulsive behavior.
  • Examples: driving to fast or taking needless risks.
physical abilities
Physical Abilities
  • Alcohol effects the area of the brain that controls muscular movement, reflexes, and balance.
  • Impaired drivers may take more time to process dangerous situations when driving.
  • Alcohol slows reflexes and reaction time, muscular coordination becomes slow and clumsy.
seeing and speaking abilities
Seeing and Speaking Abilities
  • Impairment occurs in visual acuity, peripheral vision, night vision, color vision, and depth perception.
  • The reaction of the pupil is impaired, so when approached by bright lights, the pupil does not become small rapidly. This cause you to temporarily blind.
  • You will also see multiple images.
  • Alcohol can also effect speech.
  • Speech may become slurred and fuzzy, it may also fail to convey meaning.
other physical problems
Other Physical Problems
  • Death can occur if a large amount of alcohol is consumed over a short period of time.
  • Long-term effect – drinking can lead to alcoholism, which is an addiction to alcohol.
alcohol in the body
Alcohol in the Body
  • Blood Alcohol Concentration(BAC) – the amount of alcohol in the blood.
  • Each drink you have adds about .02 to .03 % to the persons BAC.
  • In New Jersey it is illegal for a motorist 21 and older with a BAC of .08 or higher to drive.
  • For motorist younger than 21, it is illegal to drive with a BAC of .01 or higher.
amount of alcohol in a drink
Amount of Alcohol in a Drink
  • The term “proof” describes the strength of liquor.
  • Divide a liquors proof number by 2 to determine its % of alcohol.
  • A 100-proof liquor is about 50% alcohol.
factors affecting bac
Factors Affecting BAC
  • Amount of alcohol consumed – the more a person drinks, the higher the BAC.
  • Amount of time over which the alcohol is consumed – BAC rises if only short periods of time elapse between drinks.
  • Person’s body weight – a heavier person may be affected less by the same amount of alcohol as a smaller person.
  • To a lesser degree, some types of food in the stomach my slow the rate at which alcohol is absorbed.
control drinking
Control Drinking

Responsible people can limit their drinking by taking the following actions.

  • Get involved in other activities.
  • Put a limit on how many drinks you are going to have and stick to it.
  • Avoid drinks with high alcohol concentration.
  • Drink slowly, try not to have more then one drink per hour.
  • Be aware of your physical and mental behaviors.
controlling impairment
Controlling Impairment
  • Alcohol continues to circulate throughout the body until it is oxidized and removed by the liver.
  • The body rids itself of alcohol at a rate of one drink every ¾ of an hour.
  • Only time can reduce the person’s BAC and that person’s degree of impairment.
myths on alcohol that are not true
Myths on Alcohol That are Not True
  • I can sober up by drinking black coffee, taking a cold shower, or doing exercises.
  • One drink won’t hurt me.
  • I will not be affected because I am only drinking beer.
  • I can driver better after a few drinks.
  • A younger person can not become a problem drinker.
  • Designated Driver – one way to reduce the risk involved with drinking and driving is to appoint a person ahead of time who will not drink.
other drugs and driving
Other Drugs and Driving
  • Over-the Counter Medicines – drugs that can be obtained legally without a doctor’s prescription. Check the label for warnings of how it might affect driving.
  • Prescription Medicines – a drug that can be purchased legally only when ordered by a doctor.
  • Depressants – a drug that can slow down the central nervous system. Cause driver to become relaxed when driving and react slowly to hazards.
  • Examples: sleeping pills, alcohol, tranquilizers
  • Stimulants – a drug that can speed up, or stimulate the CNS. Some drivers misuse these drugs to stay awake while driving long distances. After the high wears off, you will become very tired quickly.
hallucinogens
Hallucinogens
  • These are unpredictable mind-altering drugs that can alter personality and cause panic or terror. They distort sense of direction, distance, and time.
  • Marijuana – is a powerful mind-altering drug. It can impair judgment, memory, depth perception, and coordination.
  • Effect can last for a long time, even after you think the effects have worn off.
combining drugs
Combining Drugs
  • You should never combine drugs without consulting a doctor.
  • Using alcohol while taking other drugs can be very dangerous.
  • The effect of both drugs can be multiplied, rather then just added together.
  • Driving a vehicle after taking certain medication and drinking alcohol is neither wise nor legal.
traffic laws governing use of alcohol
Traffic Laws Governing Use of Alcohol
  • Implied Consent Law – means that anyone who receives a driver’s license automatically consents to be tested for BAC and other drugs if stopped for suspicion of drug use when driving.
  • Driving While Intoxicated – driving while having a BAC of .08 or higher.
  • Driving Under the Influence – driving with a BAC between .05 and .08. However, some states make no distinction between a DWI and a DUI.
  • In New Jersey there is no distinction between the two.
mandatory sanctions
Mandatory Sanctions
  • 21 and older with BAC over .08 or higher. (First offense only)
  • 3 month driving privilege suspension.
  • $250 - $400 fine
  • 12 – 48 hours in an intoxicated driver resource center. (IDRC)
  • Up to 30 day imprisonment.
  • $75 per day IDRC fee.
  • $100 drunk driving fee.
  • $100 alcohol education, rehabilitation and enforcement fund fee.
  • $1,000 annual surcharge for three years.
  • $75 safe neighborhood services fund fee.
mandatory sanctions1
Mandatory Sanctions
  • Under 21 with BAC of .01 or higher. (first offense only)
  • 7 months to 1 year driving privilege suspension.
  • $300 - $500 fine.
  • 12 – 48 hours in an IDRC.
  • Up to 30 days imprisonment.
  • $75 per day IDRC fee.
  • $100 drunk driving fund fee.
  • $100 alcohol education, rehabilitation and enforcement fund fee.
  • $1,000 annual surcharge for three years.
  • $75 safe neighborhood services fund fee.
breath test refusal
Breath Test Refusal
  • An April 2004 state law made the refusal to submit to a breath test equivalent to driving with a BAC of .08 for the first offense.
  • Intoxilyzer – the breath-test machine most commonly used to determine BAC.
field sobriety testing
Field Sobriety Testing
  • Law officers may give a Field Sobriety Test when they suspect a driver of a DUI.
  • These are roadside test that help an officer detect driver impairment.
  • The inability to perform two tasks at once is called divided-attention impairment.