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  1. Driver Debugging Eliyas Yakub Developer Support DDK

  2. Agenda • Overview of PnP driver • How to get device status with a debugger • Debug driver unload issue • How to debug & enable debug tracing in: • NDIS • Video • PCI/PCMCIA • SCSI • 1394 • USB • HID • Serial • Audio • Printer

  3. Basic Objects • Driverobject – one for every driver • Deviceobjects – one or more object created by drivers to represent devices • Three kinds of Deviceobjects • PDO (Physical deviceobject created by bus driver) • FDO (Functional deviceobject created function driver) • FiDO (Filter deviceobjects created by filter drivers) • Devnode – present in the PDO • Devnode contains the PNP state of the device

  4. FiDO FiDO FDO FiDO FiDO PDO PDO FDO Device Stack Upper Class Upper Device Function Driver Lower Class Lower Device Bus Driver PDO

  5. DriverObject • If you know the service name: !drvobj toaster Driver object (81254df8) is for: \Driver\toaster Driver Extension List: (id , addr) Device Object list: 811b4bf8 • !drvobj 81254df8

  6. Device Stack • From the deviceobject, you can get the entire device stack information: KD>!devstack 811b4bf8 !DevObj !DrvObj !DevExt ObjectName >811b4bf8 \Driver\toaster 811b4cb0 81753a30 \Driver\busenum 81753ae8 0000004f !DevNode 81750a60 : DeviceInst is "Toaster\MsToaster\1&1a590e2c&0&01" ServiceName is "toaster"

  7. Status of a device - Devnode • Dump the devnode to get the pnp state and resources of a device: !DevNode 0x81750a60 DevNode 0x81750a60 for PDO 0x81753a30 Parent 0x8179b350 Sibling 0000000000 Child 0000000000 InstancePath is "Toaster\MsToaster\1&1a590e2c&0&01" ServiceName is "toaster" State = DeviceNodeStarted (0x308) Previous State = DeviceNodeEnumerateCompletion (0x30d) StateHistory[07] = DeviceNodeEnumerateCompletion (0x30d) StateHistory[06] = DeviceNodeStarted (0x308) StateHistory[05] = DeviceNodeStartPostWork (0x307) StateHistory[04] = DeviceNodeStartCompletion (0x306) StateHistory[03] = DeviceNodeResourcesAssigned (0x304) StateHistory[02] = DeviceNodeDriversAdded (0x303) StateHistory[01] = DeviceNodeInitialized (0x302) StateHistory[00] = DeviceNodeUninitialized (0x301) Flags (0x00000030) DNF_ENUMERATED, DNF_IDS_QUERIED CapabilityFlags (0x00000218) EjectSupported, Removable, SurpriseRemovalOK

  8. Devnode (2) • !DevNode 817ba310 2 DevNode 0x817ba310 for PDO 0x817958e0 <snip> CmResourceList at 0xe139f7f8 Version 0.0 Interface 0x5 Bus #0 Entry 0 - Port (0x1) Device Exclusive (0x1) Flags (0x31) - PORT_MEMORY PORT_IO 16_BIT_DECODE POSITIVE_DECODE Range starts at 0xffa0 for 0x10 bytes Entry 1 - DevicePrivate (0x81) Device Exclusive (0x1) Flags (0000) - Data - {0x00000001, 0x00000004, 0000000000} BootResourcesList at 0xe1392f40 Version 1.1 Interface 0x5 Bus #0 Entry 0 - Port (0x1) Undetermined Sharing (0) Flags (0x01) - PORT_MEMORY PORT_IO Range starts at 0xffa0 for 0x10 bytes

  9. Devnode (3) • To display the entire device tree starting from the root device !devnode 0 1

  10. Resource Conflict • !arbiter – current system resource arbiters and arbitrated ranges. • This command is useful for debugging resource conflicts • Windbg help describes how to use !arbiter command to identify resource conflict

  11. Get dispatch points • !drvobj toaster 2 Driver object (81254df8) is for: \Driver\toaster DriverEntry: f9e20242 toaster!DriverEntry DriverStartIo: 00000000 DriverUnload: f9e1db9c toaster!ToasterUnload Dispatch routines: [00] IRP_MJ_CREATE f9e1d369 toaster!ToasterCreate … [16] IRP_MJ_POWER f9e1dc57 toaster!ToasterDispatchPower [17] IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL f9e1ed26 toaster!ToasterSystemControl [18] IRP_MJ_DEVICE_CHANGE 804f9fe2 nt!IopInvalidDeviceRequest [1b] IRP_MJ_PNP f9e1ca44 toaster!ToasterDispatchPnp • bp toaster!ToasterDispatchPnp

  12. Dump Deviceobject • !devobj 811b4bf8 Device object (811b4bf8) is for: \Driver\toaster DriverObject 81254df8 Current Irp 00000000 RefCount 0 Type 00000022 Flags 00002004 DevExt 811b4cb0 DevObjExt 811b4d98 ExtensionFlags (0000000000) AttachedTo (Lower) 81753a30 \Driver\busenum Device queue is not busy.

  13. Dump a PDO • !devobj 81753a30 Device object (81753a30) is for: 0000004f \Driver\busenum DriverObject 8123de18 Current Irp 00000000 RefCount 0 Type 0000002a Flags 00003040 DevExt 81753ae8 DevObjExt 81753b20 DevNode 81750a60 ExtensionFlags (0000000000) AttachedDevice (Upper) 811b4bf8 \Driver\toaster Device queue is not busy.

  14. Debugging Driver Unload • Due to leaked references or open handles • Get the driverobject/deviceobject address (IopLoadDriver or IoCreateDevice) • !object 81a578c0 Object: 81a578c0 Type: (81bd0e70) Device ObjectHeader: 81a578a8 HandleCount: 0 PointerCount: 3 Directory Object: e1001208 Name: Serial0 • ba w4 81a578a8 "k;g"

  15. Due to Open Handles • Run oh.exe on the target checked build system • This tells the system to track handles • Restart the machine & disable the device • PNP dumps following info when a query remove is vetoed: 1:Beginning handle dump:1: (Failed Query-Remove - *Might* by due to leaked handles)1: DeviceObject:816CAEE0 ProcessID:1744T FileObject:817808D0 Handle:636T 1:Dump complete - 1 total handles found. • !process 6D0

  16. Debug Trace • Introduced new DbgPrintEx function on XP ULONG DbgPrintEx(IN ULONGComponentID, IN ULONGLevel, IN PCHARFormat, . . . . [arguments] ); • Microsoft has defined ~95 component filter IDs (Look for DPFLTR_TYPE in ntddk.h) • For every component filter, there is global mask variable NT! Kd_IHVVIDEO_Mask NT!Kd_IHVAUDIO_Mask

  17. Debug Trace • You can set the value of the mask either thru registry or with a debugger: HKLM\SYSTEM\CCS\Control\Session Manager\Debug Print Filter “IHV_AUDIO”=REG_DWORD:0xFFFFFFFF Or ed NT! Kd_IHVAUDIO_Mask 0xffffffff • Debug output is filtered based on global mask (Kd_Win2000_Mask) and component level mask • How the mask and level values are used in filtering the output is documented in the Windbg Help file.

  18. Debug Trace • Find your component ID either from the ntddk.h file or KD> x NT!Kd_*_Mask • Set the value to max for verbose output (0xffffffff) • Not all the drivers in the system are using this new function

  19. NDIS Debugging • Requires checked build NDIS • Load NDIS debugger extension !load ndiskd.dll • Enable NDIS debug tracing ! dbglevel Current setting: INFO Available settings: INFO LOG WARN ERR ! dbgsystems Current settings: PNP Available settings: INIT CONFIG SEND RECV PROTOCOL BIND BUS_QUERY REGISTRY MEMORY FILTER REQUEST WORK_ITEM PNP PM OPEN LOCKS RESET WMI NDIS_CO REFERENCE

  20. NDIS Debug Tracing • Enable through registry: HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NDIS\Parameters: "DebugLevel"=dword:00000000 "DebugSystems"=dword:000030F3 "DebugBreakPoint"=dword:00000001 • Requires a reboot. • Values of DebugSystems & DebugLevel are documented in the DDK.

  21. NDIS Extensions • !miniports Miniport Driver Block: 816f6190, Version 0.0 Miniport: 81645870 Direct Parallel Miniport Driver Block: 8166f8b0, Version 4.5 Miniport: 8166caf0 3Com 3C920 Integrated Fast Ethernet Controller (3C905C-TX Compatible) Miniport Driver Block: 81676b20, Version 2.0 Miniport: 81673878 3Com 10/100 PCI Server NIC w/3XP (3CR990SVR95) • !miniport 81673878 • Dumps both NDIS, PNP and Power state of the device

  22. NDIS Extensions (2) • !protocols Protocol 815c3e90: TCPIP Open 81729be0 - Miniport: 8162f670 3Com 3C920 Integrated Fast Ethernet Controller Protocol 81712210: NDPROXY Open 81605008 - Miniport: 81645870 Direct Parallel Protocol 8171ddb8: NDISWAN Open 81721150 - Miniport: 81645870 Direct Parallel Open 81605110 - Miniport: 81582138 WAN Miniport (PPTP) • !protocol 815c3e90 • !mopen 81721150

  23. NDIS Extensions (3)

  24. Video Miniport Debugging • Requires checked build system or checked build video port & miniport drivers • Doesn’t have debugger extension • Enable debug tracing by setting the global variable(s) • Variable names are different between Win2K and XP

  25. Video Miniport (2) • On Windows 2000, you can enable debug tracing either through registry or debugger • Set the value of VideoDebugLevel (0-3) in the registry: HKLM\SYSTEM\CCS\Services\DriverName\DeviceN VideoDebugLevel:REG_DWORD: 2 • ed videoprt!VideoDebugLevel 3

  26. Video Miniport (3) • Video port on XP uses new DbgPrintEx function • Following variables are defined for video drivers Kd_IHVVIDEO_Mask Kd_VIDEO_Mask Kd_VIDEOPRT_Mask • HKLM\SYSTEM\CCS\Control\Session Manager\Debug Print Filter “IHVVIDEO”=DWORD: 0xffffffff

  27. Storage Driver Debugging • On Win2K: • On XP, set values of NT!Kd_ScsiPort_Mask NT!Kd_ScsiMiniport_Mask

  28. SCSI Driver • To list device objects created for all SCSI controllers and devices: !object \device\scsi Object: 8186f410 Type: (818cbba0) Directory ObjectHeader: 8186f3f8 HandleCount: 0 PointerCount: 4 Directory Object: 8189d550 Name: Scsi HashBucket[ 15 ]: 81200a50 Device 'aic78xx1Port2Path0Target3Lun0' HashBucket[ 22 ]: 8186e030 Device 'aic78xx1'

  29. SCSI Driver • !devobj 81200a50 Device object (81200a50) is for: aic78xx1Port2Path0Target3Lun0 \Driver\aic78xx DriverObject 81893cb0 Current Irp 00000000 RefCount 0 Type 00000007 Flags 00001050 DevExt 81200b08 DevObjExt 81200fc8 Dope 81247728 DevNode 8120cf28 ExtensionFlags (0000000000) AttachedDevice (Upper) 81247030 \Driver\Disk DeviceQueue: 811c7308 811e9e68 811e9848 811e9508 811e91c8 811c6e68 811c6b28

  30. SCSI Driver • !irp 811c7308 Irp is active with 5 stacks 3 is current (= 0x811c73c0) Mdl = 811f4d48 Thread 811ef020: Irp stack trace. cmd flg cl Device File Completion-Context [ 0, 0] 0 0 00000000 00000000 00000000-00000000 Args: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 [ 0, 0] 0 0 00000000 00000000 00000000-00000000 Args: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 >[ f, 0] 0 e1 81200a50 00000000 ed051184-811c5928 Success Error Cancel pending \Driver\aic78xx CLASSPNP!ClassIoComplete Args: 811c5928 00000000 00000000 00000000 [ 3,34] 2 e0 81247030 811bb1a8 80522ed2-00000000 Success Error Cancel \Driver\Disk ntkrnlmp!PsLookupThreadByThreadId Args: 00001000 00000000 00107000 00000004 [ 3, 0] 0 0 811fc020 811bb1a8 00000000-00000000 \FileSystem\RAW Args: 00001000 00000000 00107000 00000000

  31. SCSI Driver • !srb 811c5928 Srb 811c5928 is from pool SRB_FUNCTION_EXECUTE_SCSI: Path 0, Tgt 3, Lun 0, Tag ff, SrbStat 0, ScsiStat 0 OrgRequest 811c5868 SrbExtension 00000000 TimeOut 0000000a SrbFlags 00000342 Queue Enable, No freeze, Cache Enable, 10 byte command with data transfer in: 28 0 0 0 8 38 0 0 8 0 • dt SCSI_REQUEST_BLOCK 0x811c5928

  32. SCSI Driver • !scsikd.scsiext 81200a50 … Q Depth 020 (255) InquiryData 0x81200C0E DeviceMap Keys: Target 0x00019c Lun 0x000264 Bypass SRB_DATA blocks 4 @ 0x81200c88 List 0x81200e68 RS Irp 0x81259d68 Srb @ 0x81200f28 MDL @ 0x81200f68 Request list @0x81200BF8: Tick count is 86376 SrbData 0x811C7E68 Srb 0x811C7F28 Irp 0x811DC008 <1s SrbData 0x811C7B28 Srb 0x811C7BE8 Irp 0x811E7008 <1s ... • !srbdata 0x811C7E68

  33. 1394 Debugging • Windows 2000/XP 1394 stack • ed ohci1394!ohcidebuglevel 6

  34. USB Debugging • Requires checked build system or checked build USB modules • Enable debug tracing by setting the global variables • One debugger extension (!urb <address>) • Different between Win2K and XP

  35. USB Debugging (2) • Windows 2000 USB stack • ed USBD!USBD_Debug_Trace_Level 2

  36. USB Debugging (2) • Windows XP USB stack • All USB miniport drivers use USBPORT for debug output

  37. PCI Debug Extensions • !pci - Displays the current status of the PCI buses and any devices attached to them. • !pcitree - Displays information on PCI device objects • !devext <addess> PCI <address> is the address of a device extension to be dumped. <type> is the type of the object owning this extension: PCI if it is a PCI device extension ISAPNP if it is an ISAPNP device extension PCMCIA if it a PCMCIA device extension USBD OPENHCI UHCD if it is a USB Host Controller extension USBHUB if it is a USB Hub extension HID if it is a HID device extension

  38. PCMCIA Debugging • Set PCMCIA!PcmciaDebugMask (0x00000000 – 0xFFFFFFFF) #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_ALL 0xFFFFFFFF #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_TUPLES 0x00000001 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_ENABLE 0x00000002 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_PARSE 0x00000004 #define PCMCIA_DUMP_CONFIG 0x00000008 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_INFO 0x00000010 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_IOCTL 0x00000020 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_DPC 0x00000040 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_ISR 0x00000080 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_CANCEL 0x00000100 #define PCMCIA_DUMP_SOCKET 0x00000200 #define PCMCIA_READ_TUPLE 0x00000400 #define PCMCIA_SEARCH_PCI 0x00000800 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_FAIL 0x00008000 #define PCMCIA_PCCARD_READY 0x00010000 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_DETECT 0x00020000 #define PCMCIA_COUNTERS 0x00040000 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_OVERRIDES 0x00080000 #define PCMCIA_DEBUG_IRQMASK 0x00100000 • !devext <addess> PCMCIA

  39. Printer Driver Debugging (Usermode) • Checked build system or checked build printer driver components (unidrv or pscript) • Attach to either the printing application or the spooler process (spoolsv.exe) depending on whether you are debugging the UI module or the rendering module • Unidrv debugging: "ed unidrv!giDebugLevel 1". • Debugger extensions: "!gdikdx.help" to view the gdikdx debugger extension.

  40. Printer Driver (Kernelmode) • Run gflags and enable “Place Heap Allocation at end of pages” on spoolsv.exe • Restart spooler (net stop/start spooler) • Run verifier.exe on Win32K.sys to debug your printer driver

  41. Audio Driver Debugging • For Windows2000/XP

  42. HID Driver Debugging • Debug trace from hidusb by setting hidusb.sys!HIDUSB_DebugLevel (0 or 1) • Debug trace from hidclass by setting hidclass!dbgverbose (0 or 1) • !devext <hid_device_extension> HID • !hidppd <address> address - Specifies the hexadecimal address of the HIDP_PREPARSED_DATA structure

  43. Serial Driver • Serial: Set the DebugLevel in the registry HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Serial “DebugLevel”= REG_DWORD:0xFFFFFFFF Or ed Serial!SerialDebugLevel (0x00000000 – 0xFFFFFFFF) • Mask values are defined in %DDKROOT%\src\kernel\serial\serial.h • Serenum: Set the DebugLevel in the registry HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Serenum “DebugLevel”= REG_DWORD:1FF • Mask values are defined in %DDKROOT%\src\kernel\serenum\serenum.h

  44. Device Installation Debugging • Enable SetupAPI logging through registry: HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Setup “LogLevel” = REG_DWORD:0x8000FF00 • LogLevel flag is made up of three parts: 0xSSSSDDGG (documented in the DDK) GG – general options DD – Device installation SSSS – Special flags

  45. Device Installation (2) • You can send trace to the debugger as well as to a log file %systemroot%\setupapi.log • Works on Free and Checked system. • Doesn’t require reboot. • To get verbose trace from kernel & usermode pnp manager, set nt!Kd_NTOSPNP_Mask and nt!Kd_PNPMGR_Mask to 0xFFFFFFFF

  46. Discussion • Q & A