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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Submission Title: [Add name of submission]

Date Submitted: [The date the document is contributed, in the format “21 May, 1999”]

Source: [Add name of submission Author] Company [Add name of Affiliation]

Address [Add address Street, City, PC, Province/State, Country]

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Re: [If this is a proposed revision, cite the original document.]

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not address the topic under which they are submitted, may be refused or consigned to the “General Contributions” area.]

Abstract: [Description of document contents.]

Purpose: [Description of what the author wants P802.15 to do with the information in the document.]

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Jay Cadman, Ubisense

ubisense case studies

Ubisense Case Studies

March 2009

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

about us
ABOUT US

History

Founded in January 2003

Management team track record of building successful, profitable businesses

Headquartered in Cambridge, England with offices in Denver, Colorado; Dortmund, Germany; and Singapore

100+ employees worldwide

Solutions

The only UWB product certified in both US and Europe

Customers

Currently over 375 customers in 27 countries

Deployments in Manufacturing, Logistics, Military, Supply Chain, Events and Hazardous environments

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

3

successful markets
SUCCESSFUL MARKETS
  • MANUFACTURING
  • Real-time tracking of assets and inventory
  • Improved processes
  • Reduced searching
  • Reduced wastage
  • Tracking WIP
  • LOGISTICS
  • Tracking barcode readers and forklifts
  • Insurance audit trail reduces “shrinkage”
  • Flexible warehouse organization
  • MILITARY
  • Locating people and equipment
  • Urban combat training
  • Warehouse management
  • Advanced R&D
  • TRANSIT &
  • TRANSPORTATION
  • - Real time bus location
  • Reduced operating costs and capital investment
  • Reduced maintenance time
  • IMMERSIVE MEDIA
  • Interactive environments
  • Entertainment establishments
  • Improved lead conversion
  • HAZERDOUS ENVIRONMENTS
  • Locating people, plant and assets
  • Emergency location for safety & muster
  • Process optimization
  • Security & compliance
  • RETAIL
  • Real-time and historical cart tracking
  • Improved customer service
  • Improved store layout

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

identification to location
IDENTIFICATION TO LOCATION

Precise location drives high-end identification applications

There are existing, workable standards for lower-fidelity systems

Passive

RFID

Active RFID

/ WiFi

RTLS

Barcode

Identification

Proximity

Location

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

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6

application location driven tool assistance
Application – Location-driven Tool Assistance
  • RTLS sensors mounted around the production line continuously track both vehicles and tools via the location tags mounted on each
  • A location zone is defined around each vehicle on the line. Over 150K interactions per day
  • When the tool, held by the assembly worker, enters a given vehicle’s location zone an association event (VIN / tool ID) is triggered. The system looks up the work order for that VIN in the current bay and the tool controller is set accordingly
  • Requires highest accuracy & reliability
    • ~30cm accuracy required to determine if tool is working on tailgate of one car, or the hood of the next car on the line
    • Customer wants >99.99% reliability for tool/car association
  • Environment is extremely hostile
    • Metal everywhere around the assembly line
    • Tools often used deep inside metal car body
  • AoA/TDoA architecture key to success
    • Need to extract maximum information from every signal
  • Multi-territory regulatory compliance necessary
    • Customer wishes to deploy same solution in several countries

7

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

application oil refinery worker safety
Application – Oil refinery worker safety
  • Tracking of workers at petrochemicals plant for safety
  • Workers are tagged to ensure they are accounted for correctly in case of an emergency and during certain specific daily tasks
  • Requires high spatial accuracy
    • High accuracy required to ensure maximum system reliability and optimal guidance for emergency services
  • Environment is hostile
    • Extreme level of obstruction due to plant structure
  • AoA/TDoA architecture key to success
    • Need to extract maximum information from every signal
    • Accurate 3D information is required
  • Multi-territory regulatory compliance necessary
    • Customer wishes to deploy same solution in several countries

8

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

application bus depot tracking
Application – Bus depot tracking
  • Bus locations within a depot are used to generate a schedule for the operators to maximize efficiency of depot operations
  • Each bus is tagged allowing the Ubisense platform to determine an exact bay, lane, and position of each bus, as soon as it is parked inside the garage
  • Dispatchers have real time visualization of vehicles for assignment, reducing uncertainty in bus departure times and maintenance overhead
  • Requires high spatial accuracy
    • High accuracy required to determine precise position and ordering of buses inside depot
  • Two-way communications is important
    • System is able to change update rates of tags to speed response in certain situations whilst maintaining long battery lifetime
  • Environment is hostile
    • Many obstructions due to other buses and building structure
  • AoA/TDoA architecture key to success
    • Need to extract maximum information from every signal

9

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

application trade show tracking
Application – Trade show tracking

US Department

of Veteran Affairs

  • Needed to locate 1800 attendees in a 11,000sq ft. venue, with <3 day setup
  • Sensors are mounted throughout the exhibition hall and in the meeting rooms
  • When an attendee registers they are provided with a packet that includes a Ubisense tag
  • Attendees are tracked through the venue, and the system records time spent near each booth or with another attendee
  • Attendee marks their interest in an exhibitor or other attendee by pressing a button on their tag (and receiving instant feedback)
  • Ubisense integrates with partner’s trade show management platform
  • Requires high spatial accuracy
    • High accuracy required to determine interactions with exhibitors and other attendees
  • Two-way communications important
    • System must respond instantly to button presses, and provide immediate feedback to user
  • Environment is hostile
    • Many obstructions due to booth structure and crowded areas
  • AoA/TDoA architecture key to success
    • Need to extract maximum information from every signal

10

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

application warehouse pallet tracking
Application – Warehouse pallet tracking
  • RTLS sensors mounted around the warehouse continuously track forklifts using multiple tags mounted on the lifting forks
  • Passive RFID readers on the forklifts detect passive tags on pallets, so the system knows when a pickup/drop off event occurs
  • When a package is dropped off, the system determines the 3D location of the lifting forks, and hence the final location of the pallet
  • This information is used to find pallets more quickly and optimise forklift movements
  • Requires high spatial accuracy
    • High accuracy required to determine forklift position & orientation
    • Pallets may be placed on shelves with forklift non-perpendicular to shelf!
  • Environment is hostile
    • Many obstructions due to metal shelving and stored items
  • AoA/TDoA architecture key to success
    • Need to extract maximum information from every signal
    • Accurate 3D information is required

11

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

application retail store management
Application – Retail store management
  • RTLS sensors inside the 40,000sq. ft store locate employees when customers enter store and begin to browse
  • Employees can page other employees nearby to offer assistance, using buttons on tag
  • When customer purchases merchandise, back room personnel are able to immediately locate employee and customer with packaged merchandise
  • Store operator is able to operate with optimal staff at all times
  • Requires high spatial accuracy
    • High accuracy required to determine employee location within complex store
  • Environment is hostile
    • Due to shelving, displays and other obstructions
  • Two-way communications important
    • System must respond instantly to button presses, and provide immediate feedback to user
  • AoA/TDoA architecture key to success
    • Need to extract maximum information from every signal

12

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

ubisense active rfid rtls architecture
Ubisense – Active RFID / RTLS architecture

(x,y,z,t) sightings to applications on network

  • Asymmetric architecture
    • Cheap tags, more complex sensors
  • Mobile tags transmit UWB signals
    • Tags consist of off-the-shelf microcontroller/radio plus a few discrete components
  • Fixed sensor infrastructure detects signals
    • Sensors are placed at known positions during system installation
    • Share data over wired or wireless network links
    • Measurements of UWB signal properties allow computation of tag position
    • 2.4GHz control channel to tags provides bidirectional communications & regulatory compliance in certain territories

UWB transmission

Wired or wireless network

2.4GHz control channel

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Jay Cadman, Ubisense

flavors of uwb for location applicable standards
Flavors of UWB for location & applicable standards

GENERIC UWB REGULATIONS

High complexity

Data + location

Symmetric architectures (all nodes identical, allowing ad-hoc systems)

Two-way UWB

Requires custom IC development

No market deployment yet

Low complexity

Optimised for location only

Asymmetric infrastructure-based architectures (simple tags + more complex fixed sensors)

One-way UWB

No custom IC required (tags typically off-the-shelf microprocessor + discrete components)

Existing market deployment

IEEE 802.15.4a

Coherent

Detection by coherent signal integration + sampling

More flexible signal capture/analysis

Highest accuracy

Non-coherent

Detection by energy detection + thresholding

Simplest sensor

Lower accuracy

No existing standards for these market-deployed systems

?

?

14

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

ubisense uwb signal measurements
Ubisense – UWB signal measurements
  • Also better GDOP than TDoA-only systems for typical ceiling-mounted sensor placements
    • Allows practical, accurate 3D positioning
  • Coherent receiver array senses angle-of-arrival (AoA) & time-difference-of-arrival (TDoA)
  • Each received signal generates three measurements
    • Time-of-arrival (used to calculate TDoA), azimuth AoA, elevation AoA
    • Fewer tag-sensor signal paths required to get a position – important in cluttered environments
    • More information allows better multipath rejection and higher accuracy

15

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

ubisense coherent uwb signal integration
Ubisense – Coherent UWB signal integration
  • Coherent receiver allows range, accuracy and update rate to be traded against each other
  • Greatest flexibility for wide range of applications & environmental conditions
  • E.g. in low SNR conditions, integrate more UWB pulses for each sampling step
    • Trade-off update rate for increased range
    • Increases range without increasing transmitted power (limited by regulation)
  • E.g. in high SNR conditions, integrate fewer pulses per sampling step, but have more steps
    • Trade-off range for increased resolution
    • Better resolution allows improved measurement accuracy

INTEGRATE

Transmitted UWB pulse trains

Received pulse

INTEGRATE

16

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

ubisense 2 4ghz control channel
Ubisense – 2.4GHz control channel
  • Narrowband control channel allows infrastructure to control tag behaviour
  • Required for compliance with many sets of UWB regulation which have “10s rule” or equivalent
    • US: FCC Part 15.519 (‘Hand-held’ outdoor rules)
    • EU: ETSI 302500-2
    • Japan: ARIB STD-T91
    • Singapore: IDA TS UWB
  • Tag update rates can be changed dynamically
    • Fast update rates when required for good temporal resolution
    • Slow update rates at other times for good battery lifetime
  • Simple bidirectional data transfer supports interactive applications via tag
    • E.g. button presses for user input
    • E.g. buzzer and LEDs for output to user
  • Channel allows infrastructure to act as MAC arbiter
    • Beacon signals act as markers for timeslotted protocol
    • Predictable performance even in situations with 1000s of tags
  • Use of 2.4GHz band allows simple tag implementation
    • UWB receivers are complex, power-hungry and expensive
    • 2.4GHz ISM-band radios are commodity items, often integrated with microcontrollers

17

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

ubisense 2 4ghz channels
Ubisense 2.4GHz channels
  • Ubisense uses narrowband channels in the 2.4GHz band
    • 2.4GHz link allows bidirectional command-and-control of tags
  • Channels are only about 600kHz wide
    • They can slot between and above spectrum used by other systems (e.g. WiFi)
  • We provide a set of default channels, but can be changed as required
    • Default channels allow coexistence with common EU/US WiFi configurations
      • 1,6,11 in US and EU
      • 1,5,9,13 in EU
    • If these aren’t suitable, we can allocate channels at any other 2.4GHz-band frequency

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

summary
Summary
  • Ubisense RTLS products have already been deployed on a wide scale
    • Many different existing applications with a range of requirements
    • New applications being identified all the time
  • Ubisense has adopted a low-complexity, asymmetric, architecture
    • Coherent UWB permits AoA/TDoA positioning, with resulting high accuracy & robustness
    • 2.4GHz link allows bidirectional tag control & regulatory compliance
  • We believe existing standards (e.g. IEEE802.15.4a) are too complex for UWB RTLS
    • Should focus on the RTLS capability, rather than providing a generic data transfer capability
  • We believe that any new Active RFID RTLS standard should:
    • Be fully capable of meeting customers’ aggressive RTLS requirements
    • Result in systems that are capable of deployment in the maximum possible number of territories
    • Be developed at a time that maximises the chance of the resulting standard being widely adopted

Jay Cadman, Ubisense

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