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Teaching in Schools: Effective Teaching – Lesson Planning – Creating our Materials. Emma Fieldhouse, Environment Team. A few questions before we start. How many are ‘international’ students? How many of you have a bus pass?
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Teaching in Schools:Effective Teaching – Lesson Planning – Creating our Materials Emma Fieldhouse, Environment Team
A few questions before we start • How many are ‘international’ students? • How many of you have a bus pass? • How many of you are still here next week (12th) or the following week (19th) for a meeting in schools? • Did you manage to find any interesting resources for teaching?
Effective Teaching Objectives • To raise your awareness of: • the dynamics of the modern classroom • the knowledge and skill sets required to establish and maintain effective: • behaviour management • teaching and learning
The three 3 R's that underpin good teaching and learning: • Roles • Routines • Relationships
Dynamic of the Classroom • You need eyes in the back of your head! • Managing the children could take up to half of your teaching time • In the schools you will go into, you will not necessarily be expected to manage the children – the teacher can do that
Dynamics of the Classroom • Expect disruption and plan for how to handle it • Pupils may move around, be disobedient, they may not listen to your instructions
3 different Styles of Behaviour Management The ideal is to establish a continuum with varying degrees of power RULES – CONSEQUENCES “I’m in charge” RELATIONSHIP – LISTENING “You seem worried. Talk to me about it” CONFRONT - CONTRACT “We need to work this out”
Asserting your Needs • Aim for a WIN-WIN – The Language of Choice • Sense of ‘Choice’ = Lessening of Threat
Working in Pairs With a partner try out these scripts on each other: How does it feel to be on the receiving end of them? • “Darren – I’ve told you twice to stop talking. If you do it again I shall move you over here on your own” • “Darren – the direction is to work silently. If you choose to talk then you will need to sit on your own over here. It’s your choice”
Proactive or Reactive - Teacher Responses to Misbehaviour • Stay in your pairs – number yourselves 1 and 2 • Practice 3 types of response to a pupil (passive, hostile, assertive) • First round – number 1 to be the teacher – number 2 to be pupil; discuss how it felt • Second round – number 2 to be the teacher – number 1 to be pupil; discuss how it felt Scenario – teacher approaches a pupil apparently time-wasting with a class pencil sharpener. As the teacher, deal with the situation in a passive manner, then be hostile then try to be assertive.
Effective Teachers • Expect to be able to manage learning and classroom behaviour • Have a plan for classroom management • Take a leadership role in the classroom • Maximise teaching and learning • Expect support from senior colleagues
They achieve this by: • Knowing their pupils • Creating well planned lessons • Setting clear classroom rules • Effective limit setting • Providing positive support for pupils
Core skills you will require • Be assertive • Have a plan • Encourage and support good quality learning and responsible behaviour by: • Giving clear activity directions • Providing supportive feedback • Taking corrective action
Clear Directions – P R I N T Why, what, where, how and when am I to do this?
The Art of Redirection Name Dropping • Consistent praise • Proximity praise • Scanning • Circulating the classroom • The “LOOK” • Physical Proximity • Moving in • Moving out
Refocusing an Argumentative Pupil What to do: • Stay calm • State what you want: "I want you to sit down and get on with the task." • Preface your statement of want by expressing understanding for the student. • Repeat your statement a maximum of three times ("broken record"). If they continue to argue, let them know that they will receive a consequence: give them the choice.
Practising the techniques - partners With a partner compose the scripts to counter these typical prevarications by pupils: Pupil out of place, talking to mates, off task: "I'm only asking him if I can borrow a pen” "Okay give us a minute, can't you?” "What about them over there -you never say nothing to them - it's not fair.“” Two pupils continually talking, during a writing task: "We was only talking about how to do it” "Do we have to do this? It's boring” "We're doing the work! What's wrong having a chat?”
Objectives • To develop an awareness of the elements present in a well-structured lesson • To develop an understanding of the value and significance of lesson starters • To develop an understanding of the value and significance of plenary sessions
The purpose of lesson plans Good lesson plans help teachers to: • structure their lessons; • build on previous lessons and learning; • share the objectives of the lesson with pupils; • assess pupil achievements; • develop effective assessment for learning; • make lessons more inclusive and address a range of needs…
The purpose of lesson plans II • …make better use of classroom support; • make explicit the key strategies they wish to use; • address the key questions they need to ask; • highlight key vocabulary; • focus on targets for raising standards, including literacy, numeracy and ICT; • set homework.
Key elements of good lesson plans Good lesson plans are brief but usually have: • lesson objectives which can be shared with pupils; • a clear structure for the lesson; • brief notes on key questions and teaching points; • brief notes on specific activities…
Key elements of good lesson plans II • …brief notes relating to needs of individuals or groups (for example, SEN, G&T, EAL); • a note of how any additional support will be used; • reference to subject issues, for example developing vocabulary; • references to relevant resources; • an indication of any homework to be set.
Well structured lessons Successful lesson structures include the following: • a crisp start - to share experience and prior knowledge; • exposition and explanation of the main points and content of the lesson - to enable access to new information and the introduction of new skills and processes; • activities that build on this exposition - to process new information, identify patterns, rules and conventions arising from it and to develop understanding; • opportunities to consolidate and apply learning, and express it in a range of ways, e.g. through written, diagrammatic, physical, visual, auditory or oral responses; • plenaries during and at the end of a lesson- to check on progress and for pupils to reflect on what they have learned and how they have learned it.
Structuring Effective Lessons A typical 50 - 60 minute lesson is likely to include: • One or more starter activities • A main activity • A concluding plenary This model is traditionally known as the THREE PART LESSON
A typical THREE PART LESSON FORMAT Lesson Plenary WHOLE CLASS Engagement WHOLE CLASS
Step 1: What are our learning objectives? Useful stems By the end of the lesson pupils will: • know that... (knowledge: factual information, for example names, places, symbols, formulae, events); • develop / be able to... (skills: using knowledge, applyingtechniques, analysing information, etc.); • understand how/why ... (understanding: concepts, reasons, effects, principles, processes, etc.); • develop / be aware of ... (attitudes and values: empathy, caring, sensitivity towards social issues, feelings, moral issues, etc.). Objectives may also focus on how pupils learn.
Step 2: How will we begin the lesson Why have starters: • develop early levels of engagement and motivation; • help to get all pupils quickly on task and to inject a sense of pace and challenge; • are an alternative to commencing with a whole-class question-and-answer routine; • fulfil a wide range of purposes, in particular using prior knowledge to introduce new topics…
Starters continued… • create a level of challenge which is dependent upon: • prior learning; • level or order of thinking; • management of pupil response; • create an expectation that pupils will think and participate in the lesson; • create a climate of interaction and involvement; • create a sense of purpose in a part of the lesson which can be derailed by administrative and organisational tasks.
Step 3: How will we finish the lesson? PURPOSES OF PLENARIES Plenaries are vital elements of lessons because they fulfil a wide range of purposes. In particular they: • help pupils to crystallise, understand and remember what has been learned. • refer back to the learning objectives: • create a sense of achievement, gain and completion; • take stock of where the class has reached in a task or a sequence…
Step 3: How will we finish the lesson? • take learning further and deeper; • provide an opportunity for the teacher to assess learning and plan accordingly; • recognise and value the achievements of individuals and the class; • prompt deep thinking by pupils about how they have learned
Evaluation of today’s session • Please give some evaluation on today’s session… • What was good about today? • What was bad about today? • What would you like to see next time?
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