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Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary

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  1. Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Vocabulary Instruction Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension Teaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension

  2. Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Vocabulary Instruction Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension Teaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension

  3. Predictive Power Of Early Vocabulary • Best kindergarten predictors of 1st and 2nd Grades reading achievement: • Phoneme Awareness • Alphabet Knowledge • Best kindergarten predictor of Grades 3 & up reading achievement: • Oral Vocabulary

  4. Oral Vocabulary Differences For Disadvantaged Children • Total Oral Vocabulary • 2700 words middle SES 1st graders • 1800 words low SES 1st graders • New Words Per Year Primary Grades • 3000 words/year middle SES • 1000 words/year low SES • Top high school seniors know 4 times as many words as lower-performing classmates.

  5. How Many Words???? • 18 month needs to learn avg. of ___ new words a day to have avg. vocab. of approx. ______ words by the time he or she is 6 years old (Senechal & Cornell, 1993) • Avg. high school graduate knows approx. ______ words (Nagy & Herman, 1985) • To go from 8,000 to 40,000 in 12 years, a child needs to learn 32,000 words or ____ words a day. • Children typically learn _________ words a year (over 8 words a day) between 3rd and 12th grades (Nagy & Anderson, 1984) 5 8,000 40,000 7-8 3,000

  6. Vocabulary Used in a Variety of Sources 68.3 30.9 2.0 Hayes and Ahrens (1988) 30.8

  7. Min. Books Min. Text Words/Yr Text Words/Yr Books Percentile 10 .1 1.0 8,000 51,000 90 50 4.6 21.2 33.4 9.2 1,823,000 282,000 2,357,000 601,000 Variation In Amount Of Independent Reading *Percentile rank on each measure separately. **Books, magazines and newspapers. Adapted from “Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their Time Outside of School” (1988) by R.C. Anderson, P.T. Wilson, and L.G. Fielding, Reading Research Quarterly 23 (3), p. 292. (5th graders)

  8. What is it to “know a word” Eight separate facets of knowledge for a word: • Knowledge of word’s spoken form • Written form • How it behaves in sentences • Words commonly found near the word • Frequency in oral and written language • Conceptual meaning • How and when it is commonly used • Association with other words Nation (1990) from Words and Meanings – see resource slide

  9. Continuum of Word Knowledge No knowledge General sense such as knowing if the word has a positive or negative connotation Narrow, context-bound knowledge Having knowledge of a word but not being able to recall it readily enough to use in appropriate situation Rich, decontextualized knowledge of a word’s meaning, its relationship to other words and its metaphorical uses.

  10. Now You Try – Check the appropriate category

  11. National Reading Panel Findings On Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary should be taught: • both directly and indirectly • with repetition and exposure to words in multiple contexts • by presenting words in rich contexts • by using task restructuring • with active student engagement • with multiple methods including computer technology

  12. Teaching Vocabulary • Give both definitional and contextual information • Involve children more actively in word learning • Provide them with opportunities to process information and make connections • Number of instructional encounters: between ___ and ____ are necessary for students to have ownership of instructed words 7 12

  13. “A word in a dictionary is very much like a car in a mammoth motorshow – full of potential but temporarily inactive.” (Anthony Burgess, 1992)

  14. Complexity of Word Knowledge • Word learning requires quite a number of different experiences with a word • Powerful forms of vocabulary instruction that take students from no knowledge of a word to being able to use a word in understanding text are labor intensive (Beck et al, 1982) • Words differ from each other in ways where instructional differences may be required: • Words already in the student’s oral vocabulary • Words not in the student’s oral vocabulary but which are labels for concepts familiar to the student • Words not in the student’s oral vocabulary that refer to concepts new to the student

  15. Semantic Feature Analysis Transportation Four wheel One wheel Foot powered Motor powered 2 wheel water I-4 Project CRISSSM 2004

  16. Vocabulary Map Category What is it like? Properties Synonym word Examples or Non-examples V-3 Project CRISSSM 2004

  17. Vocabulary Instruction • In K-2, children decode words already in their oral vocabulary. • Teach meanings of new words with teacher read-aloud books or for upper grades, books they have read. • Vocabulary work in middle and high school should allow deeper explorations of language.

  18. Selecting Words For Vocabulary “The word is unfamiliar to children, but the concept represented by the word is one they can understand and use in conversation.” • Examples: curious, mischief, impress, nuisance, clever, weary, persistent, dazzling, cross Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002, p. 50

  19. Selecting Words For VocabularyFrom Books Read to or by Students Tier 1 Words Tier 2 Words Tier 3 Words easy words, high words for mature not used often ; frequency, language users; special to certain meaning known useful in a variety of content subjects by everyone situations benevolent, catch, isotope, lathe, sinister, when, believe tsunami essential, endure Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002

  20. High-Frequency Words – Which ones? • Words necessary for comprehension of selected text - tier 2 words • 2300 root words derived from Dale-Chall list of 3000 words commonly known by grade 4 – (Found in appendix A – Language and Reading Success by Andrew Biemiller – published by Brookline Books) • Coxhead’s (2000)Academic Word List • http://www.vuw.ac.nz/lals/research/awl

  21. A Simple Plan: Using Read-Aloud Books To Teach Vocabulary Biemiller Plan • Day 1: • Read book through without introduction of words • Read book again. • Stop and explain chosen words (7) with one or two sentences • Day 2: • Reread book. • Stop and talk about chosen words with children. Biemiller, 2002

  22. What Results Can I Expect With This Plan? • From a study by Warrick Elley: • No explanations: learned 3 words per book • With explanations: learned 8 words per book • Children with lower vocabularies learned more words than children with higher vocabularies. Biemiller, 1999

  23. Framework for “Text Talk” to teach vocabulary • Contextualize the word within the text just read • Provide definitional information through a friendly explanation • Provide an example beyond the text context so students can immediately begin to decontextualize the word • Present a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their own experiences (Beck & McKeown, 2006)

  24. “Text Talk” example with morsel from Dr. DeSoto (Steig, 1982) • In the story, the fox began thinking about Dr. DeSoto as a tasty morsel. That means he thought of him as a little something to eat. • A morsel is a small piece of food, no bigger than a bite • If you had one little piece of your sandwich left and your friend wants you to go out to the playground, you might say, “Let me finish this one last morsel.” • When might someone only want a morsel of food? Beck & McKeown, 2006

  25. Selecting Words For Vocabulary From The Bremen Town Musicians master panting musicians dismal cheerful serenade fierce perched foretold powerful huge compass perform dreadful hearth feasted journey peaceful

  26. Hand-Out Vocabulary lesson to accompany read-aloud book

  27. How Do I Write Child-Friendly Definitions? • Dictionary definition: • persistent: persevering obstinately; insistently repetitive or continuous • Child-friendly definition: • persistent: If you are persistent, you keep on trying to do something even when it is hard; you don’t give up.

  28. Video: Use of Context for Vocabulary • Please click on the video below to play.

  29. Write A Child-Friendly Definition For One Of These Words: • Dictionary definitions: • concentrate: to direct one’s thoughts or attention. • patience: the quality of being patient; capacity of calm endurance • timid: shrinking from dangerous or difficult circumstances • hero: a man noted for feats of courage or nobility of purpose

  30. Framework for “Text Talk” to teach vocabulary • Contextualize the word within the text just read • Provide definitional information through a friendly explanation • Provide an example beyond the text context so students can immediately begin to decontextualize the word • Present a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their own experiences (Beck & McKeown, 2006)

  31. Decontextualize Vocabulary: Questions, Reasons, And Examples • If you are walking around a dark room, you need to do it cautiously. Why? What are some other things that need to be done cautiously? • What is something you can do to impress your teacher? Why? What is something that you might do to impress your mother? • Which of these things might be extraordinary? Why or why not? • A shirt that was comfortable, or a shirt that washed itself? • A flower that kept blooming all year or a flower that bloomed for three days?

  32. Decontexualize Vocabulary: Making Choices • If any of the things I say might be examples of people clutching something, say “Clutching”. If not, don’t say anything. • Holding on tightly to a purse • Holding a fistful of money • Softly petting a cat’s fur • Holding on to branches when climbing a tree • Blowing bubbles and trying to catch them p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

  33. Working With New Words In Depth • Use all the words together with one of the following activities: • Sentences • Choices • One context • Same format • Children create examples Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002

  34. Decontextualize Vocabulary: Sentences • Sometimes more than one of the instructed words can be used in a sentence. For example, in the case of prefer, ferocious, and budge, we could develop the following question: Would you prefer to budge a sleeping lamb or a ferocious lion? Why? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

  35. Decontextualize Vocabulary:Choices • In the case of pounce, sensible and raucous, we could ask children to choose between two words: If you get your clothes ready to wear to school before you go to sleep, would that be sensible or raucous? If you and your friends were watching a funny TV show together and began to laugh a lot, would you sound pounce or raucous? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

  36. One Context For All The Words If difficult to find relationships between the target words, use a single context. For immense, miserableandleisurely: What might an immense plate of spaghetti look like? Why might you feel miserable after eating all of that spaghetti? What would it look like to eat spaghetti in a leisurely way? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

  37. Same Format Use the same format for all 3 words: If you satisfy your curiosity, do you need to find out more or have you found about all that you need? Why? If a dog was acting menacing, would you want to pet it or move away? Why? If you wanted to see something exquisite, would you go to a museum or a grocery store? Why? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

  38. Children Create Examples In previous format the child was making and explaining the choice. Another format is to have child create examples : If there was an emergency at an amusement park, what might have happened? If you had a friend who watched TV all the time, how might you coaxhim into getting some exercise? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

  39. Humor • Puns and jokes are motivating and provide a way for vocabulary to be repeated • Clever word play • Flu – a deceased fly • “Hink Pinks” • What do you call an identical smile? (a twin grin) • Homographs • We polish the Polish furniture • The soldier decided to desert in the desert • Puns can be based on multi-meanings or sound alikes. • A bicycle can’t stand alone because it is two-tired • In democracy it’s your vote that counts; in feudalism it’s your count that votes

  40. Word Consciousness – the goal! • Word consciousness is a complex process involving: • A feel for how written language works • Sensitivity to syntax • Awareness of word parts (morphology) • In-depth knowledge of specific words • Activities for promoting word consciousness Word of the Week Humor Word Wizard Children’s books Vocabulary self-collection Word Histories

  41. Summary of Suggestions for working with vocabulary • Provide a clear and concise definition of a target word • Use dialogue in which the words meaning is explored in context • Relate the word to the student’s experience • Provide descriptions, explanations or examples of the new word • Have the student restate the description or explanation in his or her own words • Use the word

  42. Summary of Suggestions for Working with Vocabulary • In learning a word the child masters: • Semantic – meaning and meaning networks • Phonology – phonological representation • Use some form of imagery to enhance or trigger the word • Use a graphic to provide display of the word’s network and associated words • Use visualizations • Repeated exposure to words will increase opportunities to encode, retain, and link the phonological sequence within the word • Use key words, semantic feature analysis and semantic maps

  43. Teaching individual words, exposure to rich oral language, generative word knowledge… Vocabulary Volume of Reading Reading Comprehension Time to read, fluency, motivation, matching kids with texts… Comprehension strategies, building backgroundknowledge, decoding accuracy& fluency

  44. Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Vocabulary Instruction Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension Teaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension

  45. Reading Is A Complex Activity A skilled reader rapidly and accurately decodes the words, attaches the meaning to words and sentences, connects text information to relevant background knowledge, maintains a mentalrepresentation of what he or she has already read, forms hypotheses about upcoming information and makes decisions based on his or her purpose for reading – all at the same time. Carlisle and Rice, 2002

  46. Language Knowledge Fluency Metacognition • Life Experience • Content Knowledge • Activation of Prior • Knowledge • Knowledge about • Texts • Oral Language Skills • Knowledge of Language • Structures • Vocabulary • Cultural Influences Reading Comprehension • Prosody • Automaticity/Rate • Accuracy • Decoding • Phonemic Awareness • Motivation & • Engagement • Active Reading • Strategies • Monitoring Strategies • Fix-Up Strategies

  47. K 1 2 3 Multisyllables Phonemic Awareness Listening Phonics Reading Letter Sounds & Combinations Reading Listening Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Big Emphasis Changes, K-3 Adapted from Simmons, Kame’enui, Harn, & Coyne (2003). Institute for beginning reading 2. Day 3: Core instruction: What are the critical components that need to be In place to reach our goals? Eugene: University of Oregon.

  48. Teaching Comprehension OLD, INCORRECT THINKING NEW THINKING BASED ON RESEARCH • Comprehension occurs naturally after a student learns to decode, thus comprehension just needs to be tested. • Comprehension will improve through isolated teaching of specific comprehension skills (e.g. sequence, cause and effect, main idea). • Students must be taught to flexibly use a repertoire of strategies for text comprehension. Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001; Carlisle and Rice, 2002; Smith in Birsh, 1999

  49. Teaching versus Testing Comprehension Developing Comprehension Determining Comprehension vs Process-Oriented Product-Oriented Modeling Testing Grading Guided Practice Evaluating Independence (Adapted by Dr. Lois Huffman from Richardson & Morgan, 2000)

  50. What Do Good Readers Do? • Make predictions based on background knowledge • Identify key ideas from text they are reading • Are aware of text structures • Monitor their comprehension and know how to employ fix-up strategies • Have a knowledge of and use a variety of reading strategies effectively. • Paraphrase, explain and summarize information and construct conclusions