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Intervention. Appropriate Interventions for ELLs Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) Response to Intervention (RTI). Interventions. Indirect Individual Consultation Group Consultation Classroom Consultation Systems Consultation Direct: Individual Counseling Group Counseling

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Appropriate Interventions for ELLs

Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS)

Response to Intervention (RTI)

  • Indirect
    • Individual Consultation
    • Group Consultation
    • Classroom Consultation
    • Systems Consultation
  • Direct:
    • Individual Counseling
    • Group Counseling
    • Family Counseling
    • Direct Instruction
information needed
Information Needed
  • Service Providers:
    • ESL or Bilingual Teacher
    • General Education Teacher
    • Special Education Teacher
  • What they need to know:
    • How 2nd languages are acquired
    • How culture impacts learning
    • How SES impacts learning
    • Cultural and linguistic learning styles
systems consultation
Systems Consultation
  • Typical problems:
    • School is experiencing bullying problems.
    • Student academics are low throughout the county.
    • District SPED has overrepresentation of diverse students.
  • Common solutions:
    • Consultant researches effective techniques for bully-prevention programs and teaches them to the school.
    • Consultant works with district to help make curriculum, special program, or textbook decisions.
    • Consultant works with lawyers and/ or state DOE to ensure that the district complies with requirements.
group consultation
Group Consultation
  • Typical problems:
    • Group of children throughout the school in different classrooms experiencing the same problems.
    • Entire ELL classroom of children are experiencing the same problems.
  • Common solutions:
    • Observe and evaluate the current methods/ techniques used.
    • Research the best types of programs to deal with this specific problem.
    • Share the results of the research and observations .
    • Work together to come up with solutions.
individual consultation
Individual Consultation
  • Typical problems:
    • Child is experiencing academic difficulties.
    • Child is experiencing social/emotional/behavioral problems.
  • Common solutions:
    • SST/CST/SIPT works with all teachers involved
      • All teachers are given additional skills to help the child.
    • Parent is given additional skills to help the child.
    • Parent & teachers work together to help the child.
steps to consultation w diverse consultee gibbs 1980
Steps to Consultation w/ Diverse Consultee (Gibbs, 1980)

Appraisal: Consultee determines the trustworthiness of the consultant.

Investigation: Challenge the consultant to determine if they qualified to work with them.

Involvement: Consultee will open up if they trust you to develop a relationship.

Commitment: Consultee commits to consultant but not process.

Engagement: Commit to the process if they believe in interpersonal skills of consultant.

points to consider client is diverse
Points to Consider:Client is Diverse

Must identify consultant’s knowledge of cultural sensitivity.

Must aid consultee in developing cultural sensitivity and knowledge about different cultural groups.

Must aid consultee in developing understanding of system in which client works and lives.

Work with teacher to improve development of curriculum and multicultural education.

(Duncan, 1995)

breakdown improving cultural competence
Breakdown: Improving Cultural Competence
  • Self-awareness: know your own bias and the impact of this on therapy.
  • Assessment of client: Understand the system and knowledge of the client
  • Pre-therapy: Make client aware of what therapy is and what will happen.
  • Hypothesizing: What are the problems?
  • Credibility and giving: Client / Consultee must believe in the treatment.
  • Discomfort/ Resistance: Therapists feelings of why is this not working?
  • Client’s/ Consultee’s Perspective: Know your client
solution focused brief therapy
Solution Focused Brief Therapy

Nature of People

  • People are free to make choices and are not victims of their genetics or environment.
  • People are basically good.
  • People are basically rational.
  • People respond better to a present and future counseling orientation.
  • People have the ability to work through their own problems.
  • Focuses on “what” people are doing and not “why” they are doing it.
  • Focus on success instead of failure
solution focused method
Solution-Focused Method

Miracle question: “Should a miracle occur this evening while you were sleeping and when you woke up, you suddenly realized that your problems were solved, what would you be doing that would indicate to you that the miracle had actually taken place?”

Relationship questions: “What will your _____ say that will be different after the miracle?”

Asking and reinforcing exceptions to the problem solution.

issues of counseling for multicultural clients
Issues of Counseling for Multicultural Clients

Major stressors: poverty, acculturation and racial discrimination.

Diverse clients terminate counseling sooner.

Given this, many brief therapies may be preferred.

Example of one brief therapy that works well in schools is Solution Focused Therapy.

breakdown improving cultural competence1
Breakdown: Improving Cultural Competence
  • Strategy or plan for intervention: Plan sessions based on knowledge of therapy and culture.
  • Assessment of session: How did that go? What now?
  • Willingness to consult: Know when you don’t know enough to go it alone.
rti tier i
RTI-Tier I

Performed on 100% of the students.

In the case of the ELL student, this should be considered 100% of the other ELL students and not the general population.

rti tier i1
RTI: Tier I
  • Typical Problem (a)
    • Cultural misunderstanding about U.S. schools
  • Common Solution (a)
    • Develop outreach programs for ELL parents.
    • Psychoeducational trainings concerning cultural expectations.
  • Typical Problem (b)
    • Language problems across all areas.
  • Common Solution (b)
    • Improve teacher understanding of L2 acquisition.
    • Improve the ELL program
    • Provide instructional opportunities in L1
develop outreach programs for ell parents
Develop Outreach Programs for ELL Parents
  • Communication problems (Correa, 1989; Gault, 1989; Harry, 1992a; Lynch & Stein, 1987; Turnbull & Turnbull, 1982).
  • Cultural differences (Gault; Harry, 1990, 1992a; Lynch & Stein; Sanchez, 1996).
  • Lack of school knowledge and/or parental knowledge (Gallegos & Gallegos, 1988; Harry, 1990 1992a; McKinney & Hocutt, 1982).
  • Feelings of disconnection with or intimidation by the school (Correa; Sanchez; Yates & Ortiz, 1998).
improve teacher understanding of l2 acquisition
Improve Teacher Understanding of L2 Acquisition
  • Service Providers:
    • ESL or Bilingual Teacher
    • General Education Teacher
    • Special Education Teacher
  • What they need to know:
    • How 2nd languages are acquired
    • How culture impacts learning
    • How SES impacts learning
    • Cultural and linguistic learning styles
rti tier ii

~15% of students will receive this level of intervention.

Often in small groups or direct instruction.

Should be research-based but also individualized for each child.

rti tier ii1
RTI: Tier II
  • Typical Problems
    • Reading and writing deficits (76% of ELL students below grade level in reading).
  • Common Solutions for ELL
    • Most RTI interventions show some improvement for ELLs (Shanahan & Beck, 2006).
    • Only with a mixture of the following do you find the best improvement (Linan-Thompson, Cirino, & Vaughn, 2007)
      • Essential components of reading
      • Features of Effective Instruction
      • Development of English Language Skills
development of english language skills
Development of English Language Skills
  • Language Enrichment: Student has L2 enough, but may need some support. Can be done mostly in English
  • Language Development: Students need more information on academic language. Can be done mostly in English.
  • Remediation: Acquire critical language competencies to help compensate for disability. Need L1 & English or ESL.
  • Native Language Instruction: CALP L1 to later get CALP L2; instruction in L1 to learn curriculum while learning L2.
  • English as a Second Language: Use of ESL (English-only) techniques to teach curriculum.
  • Instruction in English With no Other Support: Should only be done when child demonstrates no need for further support because they have CALP of 4-5.
rti what language
RTI: What Language?

English-only Intervention

Spanish-only Intervention

97% of students met grade-level expectations compared to 67% of students who received no intervention.

  • 91% of students met grade-level expectations compared to 41% of students who received no intervention.

Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T., 2006

rti tier iii

Child is determined to need special education services.

Only in about 5% of total school population for SLD.

rti tier iii1
  • Typical Problem (a):
    • What is more important: ELL classroom time, special education time, or general education time?
  • Typical Solutions (a):
    • Bilingual/ Special Education Interface
  • Typical Problem (b):
    • How do we work with parents to understand what is happening within special education?
  • Typical Solutions (b):
    • Educate the parents on special education.
bilingual special education possible placements
Bilingual Special Education Possible Placements
  • Full-time bilingual education with modifications
  • Full time general education with ESOL and modifications
  • SPED consults with both general education and bilingual education/ ESOL to plan instruction
  • Resource for both SPED and bilingual education/ ESOL
  • Full-time SPED with considerations made for linguistic and culturally differences.
bilingual special education interface
Bilingual/ Special Education Interface
  • Develop a “lead” for the services who determines:
    • Language of instruction for each goal.
    • Instructional strategies accounting for L2 acquisition.
    • Curricula and materials used accounting for L2 acquisition.
    • Culturally appropriate motivators.
    • Who will provide services, monitor progress, and do annual reviews?
    • Who will coordinate efforts from all of the professionals?
    • Type of Language Intervention.
educate parents on special education
Educate Parents on Special Education
  • When Harry (1992a) asked Hispanic families she was working with to show her a copy of their children’s papers, all of them had a copy of the IEP, but none of them knew what it was called or what it said.
  • Gallegos and Gallegos (1988) found that a majority of Hispanic parents reported they could not understand the forms being sent home from the school. Report cards and IEPs were discussed specifically.
  • Lynch and Stein’s study, when parents knew what an IEP was, only 55% of the Hispanics knew what services were on it.
  • Krach (2003) found that the majority of Hispanic families were satisfied with the level of communication received from schools (much higher satisfaction than Anglo parents)

Kalyanpur, M. & Harry, B. (1999). Culture in Special Education. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Company.

Linan-Thompson, S., Cirino, P. T., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Learning Disability Quarterly, 30, 185-197.

Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T. (2006). The response to intervention of English language learners at risk for reading problems Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39 (5), 390-398

Paneque, O., & Barbetta, P. (2006). A study of teacher efficacy of special education teachers of English language learners with disabilities. Bilingual Research Journal, 30 (1), 171-193

Shanahan, T., & Beck, 1. (2006). Effective literacy teaching for English language learners. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 415-488). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Eribaum Associates.

Xu, Y., & Drame, E. (2007). Culturally appropriate context: Unlocking the potential of Response to Intervention for English language learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35, 305-311