Intervention. Appropriate Interventions for ELLs Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) Response to Intervention (RTI). Interventions. Indirect Individual Consultation Group Consultation Classroom Consultation Systems Consultation Direct: Individual Counseling Group Counseling
Appropriate Interventions for ELLs
Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS)
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Appraisal: Consultee determines the trustworthiness of the consultant.
Investigation: Challenge the consultant to determine if they qualified to work with them.
Involvement: Consultee will open up if they trust you to develop a relationship.
Commitment: Consultee commits to consultant but not process.
Engagement: Commit to the process if they believe in interpersonal skills of consultant.
Must identify consultant’s knowledge of cultural sensitivity.
Must aid consultee in developing cultural sensitivity and knowledge about different cultural groups.
Must aid consultee in developing understanding of system in which client works and lives.
Work with teacher to improve development of curriculum and multicultural education.
Only 6 slides
Nature of People
Miracle question: “Should a miracle occur this evening while you were sleeping and when you woke up, you suddenly realized that your problems were solved, what would you be doing that would indicate to you that the miracle had actually taken place?”
Relationship questions: “What will your _____ say that will be different after the miracle?”
Asking and reinforcing exceptions to the problem solution.
Major stressors: poverty, acculturation and racial discrimination.
Diverse clients terminate counseling sooner.
Given this, many brief therapies may be preferred.
Example of one brief therapy that works well in schools is Solution Focused Therapy.
Performed on 100% of the students.
In the case of the ELL student, this should be considered 100% of the other ELL students and not the general population.
~15% of students will receive this level of intervention.
Often in small groups or direct instruction.
Should be research-based but also individualized for each child.
97% of students met grade-level expectations compared to 67% of students who received no intervention.
Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T., 2006
Child is determined to need special education services.
Only in about 5% of total school population for SLD.
Kalyanpur, M. & Harry, B. (1999). Culture in Special Education. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Company.
Linan-Thompson, S., Cirino, P. T., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Learning Disability Quarterly, 30, 185-197.
Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T. (2006). The response to intervention of English language learners at risk for reading problems Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39 (5), 390-398
Paneque, O., & Barbetta, P. (2006). A study of teacher efficacy of special education teachers of English language learners with disabilities. Bilingual Research Journal, 30 (1), 171-193
Shanahan, T., & Beck, 1. (2006). Effective literacy teaching for English language learners. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 415-488). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Eribaum Associates.
Xu, Y., & Drame, E. (2007). Culturally appropriate context: Unlocking the potential of Response to Intervention for English language learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35, 305-311