Who is the prophet of Islam? And, please open to pg 708. Do Now. Muhammad. Where Does It All Begin? In the land called Arabia ( modern Saudi Arabia ). Who was the prophet Muhammad?. Born in 570 in Mecca Grew up a successful merchant Married, 7 children.
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Who is the prophet of Islam? And, please open to pg 708 Do Now Muhammad
Where Does It All Begin? In the land called Arabia (modern Saudi Arabia)
Who was the prophet Muhammad? • Born in 570 in Mecca • Grew up a successful merchant • Married, 7 children Common calligraphic representation of Muhammad
The Revelations • Messages • Among many messages from angel, Muhammad reported Allah one and only true and all-powerful God • Other messages, instructions on how to live to please Allah, live in paradise • Public Preaching • Muhammad originally told only wife, few friends about experiences • Began to preach in public after about three years, attracted many followers • Some powerful Meccans did not accept teachings • Safety • Many disliked Muhammad’s criticism of traditional beliefs in many gods • Only protection of uncle kept him safe • After uncle’s death Muhammad knew he and followers not safe in Mecca
Sharing the Revelations • Hegira • 622, Muhammad moved to Yathrib, came to be called Medina, “the Prophet’s City”; journey from Mecca to Medina came to be known as hegira • Later Muslims marked year of hegira as first year of Islamic calendar • Building Faith • Muhammad spent decade building community of fellow believers • Called faithIslam, meaning “achieving peace through submission to God” • Followers known as Muslims • Mecca • People of Mecca who wanted Muhammad stopped did not give up • Fought several battles with Muhammad, followers, ultimately lost ground • 630, Muhammad controlled Mecca, influence unmatched
Muhammad and his followers retake the city of Mecca.Their journey back becomes part of the faith.
Sequence What events led up to Muhammad’s taking control of Mecca? Answer(s): Muhammad moved to Medina, number of followers grew; Meccans fought him and his followers but lost
Qur’an Five Pillars of Islam • Muslims read from Qur’an to hear Allah’s teachings • Seek religious experience in rhythm, beauty of words • Full meaning known only in original Arabic language • Translations not true representation • Five basic acts of worship central to Islam, Five Pillars of Islam • Profession of faith; BELIEF • Performance of five daily prayers; PRAYER • Giving to the poor, needy; CHARITY • FASTING during month of Ramadan • Make PILGRIMAGE to Mecca Basic Ideas of Islam • As Muhammad gained political power, revelations continued • Muhammad could not read, write; recited revelations • Followers memorized words, some wrote them down • The writings that Muslims believe as direct revelations from God are collected in Qur’an, (aka Koran, Quran) sacred test of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam • Profession of Faith - belief • “There is no god but God…” • By affirmation, Muslim signals acceptance of the faith • Denies existence of other gods, accepts Muhammad as prophet • Five Daily Prayers - prayer • Worshippers say daily prayers five times during day • Always face Mecca to pray, no matter where they are • Giving Alms to Poor, Needy - charity • Muslims supposed to give percentage of income to charity • Even those with little encouraged to help others • Fasting During Ramadan - fasting • Muslims required to go without food, drink, dawn to dusk • Ramadan when Muhammad began to report messages written down in Qur’an
Pilgrimage to Mecca Muslims physically, financially able required to go to Mecca Journey called the hajj Gather to pray in mosque Perform various rituals, walk seven times around Kaaba Climb Mount Arafat, site of Muhammad’s last sermon The Hajj ~ Mecca
Guidelines for Behavior • Qur’an provides guidelines for moral behavior • Muslims may not eat pork, drink alcohol, must wash before praying • Qur’an prohibits murder, lying, stealing • Requires jihad, to defend Muslim community, also means “holy war” • Sunna and Sharia • Record of Muhammad’s behavior, teachings known as Sunna, “tradition,” provides guidance in personal relationships, business • Muslim legal system known as Sharia, reflects various rules by which Muslims should live, outlines method of reasoning, argument for legal cases, made up of opinions, writings over several centuries
Islam monotheistic like Jewish, Christian faiths Islamic beliefs: Allah the same as God in Jewish, Christian traditions Abraham, Moses, Jesus messengers from God Muhammad, last of God’s prophets Qur’an represents God’s final message Muslims told to respect Jews, Christians as “people of the book;” share tradition of prophets who taught, received God’s revelations People of the Book
Summarize What are the acts of worship required of all Muslims? Answer(s): The Five Pillars of Islam—profession of faith, five daily prayers, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, and the hajj